A good place to start to give a little bit of balance......
Disappearing Odessa Files. In many ways the best
article/review of Uki Goñi's, The Real Odessa "The Real
Odessa", key recent book on the Nazi's & Argentina. This lengthy
article by Max Paul Friedman, Department of History, Florida
State University, details clearly the process of Perón's
involvement with the Nazi's. He makes interesting parallels with
the use of Germans by the USA, USSR and France after 1945 to
question why Perón's support for the Germans is criticised
outside Argentina when the others is not.
and links to revisionist pieces arguing the Perón-Nazi
connection was less than believed:
Perón and the Nazi's by Mark Falcoff from Time Magazine. How
the European fascist sensibility found new roots and new life in
the South Atlantic region.
los nazis: una fraternal relación 2007 interview with Uki
Goñi, Argentine author of Odessa. Concise but useful as this
part focuses on the how close Perón was to national socialism.
From Deutsche Welle
La rama nazi de Perón (Perón's Nazi branch) Article from
Argentina'a la nacion newspaper decribing the close links
between nazi escape groups and the Perón government.
Axis Ties with Argentina. Foreign Policy Reports
Contemporary report from February 1, 1946 by the US Foreign
Policy Association. Indicates the concern in the US of Axis
involvement in Argentina.
The Straight Dope: What’s the true story on South American Nazis
Laid back presentation, but a good, balanced summary of research
as it stood in 2004.
Evita, the Swiss and the Nazis Nazi-hunter John Loftus has
charged that the First Lady of the Republic and His Holiness
discussed the care and feeding of the Nazi faithful in Argentina
First lady Eva Peron 'allowed Nazis to hide out in Argentina
2011 review article showing how Evita Peron allowed Nazis to
hide out in Argentina in exchange for treasures looted from rich
Jewish families. Daily Mail Review is of 'The Politically
Incorrect Guide to Latin America,'by Leandro Narloch and Duda
Teixeira. See also
Evita, Swiss & the Nazis By Georg Hodel Based, in part, on a
Swiss German-language documentary directed by Frank Garbely and
entitled "Evitas Geheimnis - Die Schweizer Reise", this looks at
Eva Perons visit to Switzerland and its secret links with the
nazi escape line to Argentina
New Look at Argentine-Nazi ties In "The German
Connection: The Laundering of Nazi Money in Argentina," Gaby
Weber, a German journalist, argues that the Perón dictatorship
sponsored an operation to move illicitly obtained wealth to
Argentina and then back to Germany. For nearly a decade, her
book asserts, German-made cars, trucks, buses and even the
machinery for entire factories flowed into Argentina, paid for
with dollars that were then used to help finance the "German
economic miracle." New York Times
Hitler's Shadow Useful 2010 111 page long official US
National Archives report on Nazi War Criminals,
U.S.Intelligence, and the Cold War.Focus is not on Argentina but
puts Peron Nazi links in global context. Use the search facility
(12 references to argentina) Richard Breitman and Norman J.W.
Peróns: Argentina’s Populist Power Couple " Were the Peróns
really so bad? Or have they merely been smeared because the
populist Perón was not unfriendly to the Third Reich?" 2002
Analysis by Robert K. Logan in The Barnes Review using the
findings of CEANA, the official Argentine “Commission of Inquiry
into the Activities of Nazism in Argentina”.
The Politics of Espionage: Nazi Diplomats and Spies in
Argentina, 1933-1945 Long and overly detailed but pages
396-9 give good details on how sympathetic Peron actually was
(not as much as usually believed) to National Socialism. 2009
dissertation by RL McGaha, Univ of Ohio
The Jews and Perón: Communal Politics and National
Identity in Peronist Argentina, 1946-1955 Detailed online
book by LD Bell argues that despite claims Perón was
anti-Semitic and in sympathy with European fascism, he in fact
demonstrated a considerable amount of pragmatism in his dealings
with Argentina’s 250,000 strong Jewish population and attempted
to integrate a number of traditionally excluded groups,
including Jews, into Argentina's socially and politically
inclusive national vision.
2. Escape to
Ratlines Not normally keen to suggest Wikipedia, this is a
good overview to familiarise you with names, places and events
in the smuggling out of nazis to south America and the role of
key participants like the Vatican.
Secret files reveal 9,000 Nazi war criminals fled to South
America Brief 2011 item on numbers reaching South America
following newly opened German files showing as many as 5,000
Nazis went to Argentina, between 1,500 and 2,000 to Brazil and
up to 1,000 in Chile. Allan Hall, Daily Mail.
Granta: The Real Odessa Article by Uki Goni on the Nazi
flight to Argentina. Based on his book of same name.
Odessa Clear description of the origins and development of
the escape route. From the Jewish Virtual Library.
The Great Escape. Sunday Times article by John
Crossland looks at the exodus to south America shown in Uki
Goni's Real Odessa book.
Nazi Smuggling Ring Is Back in Spotlight Peron's
intelligence agency helped bring Adolf Eichmann and other war
criminals into Argentina, documents reveal History News Network,
LA Times article by Hector Tobar.
for Nazi submarines in Argentina. 2000 article from the
Norwegian Institute of Technology which was involved in looking
(200Km off the coast of Buenos Aires) for the wrecks of seven
submarines said to have transported about 350 German Nazi
officers to Argentina after World War II. By Nina E. Tveter
Remarks before the Nazi War Criminals Interagency Working Group
(Simon Wiesenthal Center, Los Angeles, 1999) Mark Weitzman
illustrates connections between the Vatican, CIA and South
America in providing an exit "rat-run" fro nazi's.
Como entró un nazi belga How the Belgian war criminal
Jean-Jules Lecompe was officially accepted into Argentina in
1947, despite arriving with false papers. From the Argentine
Página/12 but Google translates easily.
- KLM accused
of helping Nazis flee BBC item (2007) on suspicions that the
Dutch airline KLM helped Nazi war criminals escape to Argentina
after World War II
The Cape of Last Hope: The Postwar Flight of Nazi War Criminals
through South Tyrol/Italy to
South America Interesting detailed research piece by G
Steinacher, Univ of Nebraska-Lincoln (2007). Can be slow to
- How Many Nazi
War Criminals Escaped? List compiled by Uki Goñiin writing
La auténtica Odessa in 2008
The recent revision of the organised ratline/ODESSA escape
theory is presented here:
The Flight from Justice Historian Gerald Steinacher on How
Nazis Fled Europe after World War II Important and useful
History News Network Interview (2011) with Dr. Gerald Steinacher
who debunks the myth of a secret ODESSA organization that
assisted fleeing Nazis. He then traces their actual escape
methods and routes, especially through Italy, and investigates
the involvement in particular of the International Committee of
the Red Cross, the Vatican and the U.S. intelligence agencies.
Overburdened institutions enabling flight rater than a structure
like ODESSA. Reads well!
3. The Nazi's in
scientists who worked for Perόn
The Activities of Nazism in Argentina Statement by Ignacio
Klich, Academic Coordinator of the 1997 Commission of Enquiry
into the Activities of Nazism in Argentina
The "Nazi" Menace in Argentina,1931-1947 learned and,
despite the title, it is in Spanish!
Why the Nazis felt at home Nicholas Lezard of the The
Guardian anatomises the links Goñi draws between Nazi Germany
and Argentina in The Real Odessa
Argentina y los nazis by Daniel Frescó. Useful article from
Radio Netherlands. Googles clearly into English.
Argentine documentary sheds light on mystery of Nazi gold
By Hernan di Bello Article on the film "Oro nazi en Argentina"
(Nazi Gold in Argentina), which will compete in several
international film festivals before appearing in cinemas This is
the first documentary to look at the subject "from a Latin
American point of view." §
Nazi Gold Stories From Argentina Tabloid & sensationalist,
Fugitive Nazi cult leader arrested Paul Schäfer, an
84-year-old German, originally escaped to Chile, but was
arrested in Buenos Aires, March 2005 (see also this BBC report:
Nazi Past Haunts Fallen Argentine Hotel Intriguing piece on
Argentina's Eden Hotel where hundreds of nazi's flocked to after
the war, drawn by the open-door policy of General Juan Domingo
The Pulqui story. Brief history of the industrial project
that for so many proved the economic "signature" policy of
Peron: the attempt to build a domestic jet industry (using
exiled German engineers). Heavily subsidised, it eventually
failed in tandem with Peron. The
wikipedia page is also very informative with many images
Naranjeros, Gauchos and Indians By Hernán Longoni. This
detailed article describes the development of an Argentine
Flying Wing and other (German engineer led) aviation projects
after 1945. Unfortunately, the site is now no longer. This is
the Wayback version, recovered except for images. §
Argentina: Why so much theater? Gary Weber article looking
at the role of the US (echoes of North Korea policy: US would
provide uranium for "peaceful purposes if Argentina closed down
its - German led - nuclear programme) in ending of the contracts
with German engineers after the fall of Peron in 1955. Also
shows the covert US involvement in the 1960 siezure of Eichmann.
Adolf Eichmann Information on the Nazi war criminal and his
life from the Nizkor Project.
Eichmann: From Capture to Trial. Part of a complete pack on
info re Eichmann by US Public Service TV. Well presented
- Eichmann Series of Items from Germany's Spiegel:
The Capture of Adolf Eichmann Detailed account from the
Jewish Virtual Library
The blind refugee's secret By Yossi Melman. Review of a 2003
book casts a shadow on the Mossad's success in the capture of
Adolf Eichmann, favouring the individual who the author feels
deserves the credit for exposing the Nazi criminal. From
Erich Priebke account of nazi past and time in Bariloche,
Argentina from Jewish Virtual library.
4. Contemporary Argentina's
Argentina confronts Nazi haven by Uki Goni in Buenos Aires
for Guardian Unlimited.
Granta interview with Uki Goñi, February 2003 on publication
of The Real Odessa, Uki Goñi’s investigation into the
complicated network that delivered Nazi war criminals to
probes cover-up NPR (radio report but has transcipt on the
page) Argentina's president orders an investigation into whether
government employees secretly destroyed files on Nazi war
criminals who fled to the country after World War II. NPR's
Martin Kaste reports.
Argentina's Disappearing Odessa Files H Net review by max
Friedman developed review of the Uki Goni Real Odessa book.
A Culture of Impunity Article in English from the Argentine
newspaper Página/12 about Argentina's presidential Secretary of
Culture, Torcuato Di Tella, who defended two Croatian war
criminals, in a letter sent to US Representative Maurice
Argentina asked again for files article from Philadelphia
Archivo Odessa Article on the research being done by the
Argentine government into 7,250 nazi Croatians admitted to
postwar Argentina, among them some of the worst assassins of
Europe. From the Argentine Página/12 but google translates
- Ukinet Uki Goñi,
an Argentine journalist who grew up in the US and Argentina is
currently the key researcher into the Nazi link with Argentina.
His work appears in print in Peron y los Alemanes and most
recently in The Real Odessa.
Ukinet is his
website. It also links to other articles on the topic - in
French and Italian too - (including the theme of how accessible
Argentine files on the subject are). These links are constantly
updated and have been the source of many of the links on this
page. Unfortunately the links to this key site change
other casahistoria core sites on argentine history:
Immigration into Argentina
The Military and aftermath