nazi germany: living in the hitler state   

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   This photograph, which illustrates the adaptation of physiognomic measurement by Nazi "race scientists," was published on the cover of the Neue Illustrierte Zeitung on June 1, 1933, above the headline: "Who Is an Aryan?" casahistoria - web site for students of modern history!







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casahistoria is recommended by many sites including:
   


 

 

Hitler & the Nazi State. Go to the casahistoria site for details of party, government, propaganda and leadership as well as the background of Hitler.

 

1. Social Policy 

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  • Shoa.de Excellent survey (in German) of life in the Third Reich 

 

KDF (Kraft durch Freude: Strength through Joy) Education
  • School textbook extracts from the German Propaganda Archive: Biology textbook extract, 5th grade biology textbook for girls, published in the midst of the war, middle school geography textbook, 1943.
  • Nazism in the classroom Concise, but useful article by Dr Lisa Pine from a History Today mini series on Nazi society. §
  • Life in the Third Reich by Henry Metelmann. Article in New Perspective March (1998).The writer, brought to Britain as a prisoner of war in 1946, was 11 years old when Hitler became Chancellor. He outlines his father's reaction to Nazism and his own attitudes and involvement in the Hitler Youth. Early call up followed by service in occupied France and South Russia ended at the battle of Stalingrad, in defeat and capture.
Youth      Hitler Youth at War

Witness accounts:

The Nazi's & the Church
  • The Role of the Churches: Compliance and Confrontation Article by By Victoria J. Barnett who argues that Churches throughout Europe were mostly silent while Jews were persecuted, deported and murdered by the Nazis.  Churches, especially those  in Nazi Germany, sought to act, as institutions tend to do, in their own best interests -- narrowly defined, short-sighted interests. This article originally appeared in Dimensions, Vol 12, No 2, 1998
  • Hitler and Christianity by Edward Bartlett-Jones who looks at Hitler's personal views....
  • The Reich Concordat with the Catholic Church (1933) Translation of the document from the German Historical Document Institute.
  • The Vatican Concordat With Hitler's Reich The Concordat of 1933 was ambiguous in its day and remains so. By Robert A. Krieg professor of theology at the University of Notre Dame. Clear, well written article.

 


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2. Persecution

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"Anti-socials/Social Undesirables"

Jewish Persecution

The Final Solution

  • Text of the Wannsee Protocol This site has the minutes of the meeting between Nazi officials on January 20, 1942 where they discussed the process of the Final Solution.
  • World War II and Holocaust Photographs from the Simon Wiesenthal Center An alphabetical listing of the photograph categories available from the Simon Wiesenthal Center's online encyclopedia.
  • Holocaust Glossary Are you confused about some of the terms relating to the Holocaust? Since the Holocaust vocabulary was formulated from many different languages, understanding these terms can be difficult. Here's a glossary to help you.
  • Holocaust Memorial Museum New York   This lavish site provides a mass of information as well as temporary web "exhibitions". The downside is the time many pages take to load......
  • Remember.org Vast site of resources including witness accounts and:
  • Hitler's European Holocaust Helpers 2009 article from Der Spiegel describes the collusion of other European countries in the Holocaust which has received surprisingly little attention until recently.
  • Lodz Ghetto  Throughout Europe, Jews were crowded into ghettos before being systematically murdered in the death camps. Follow the history of the ghetto in Lodz, Poland.
  • Galicia Jewish Museum Site of the Krakow museum which exists to commemorate the victims of the Holocaust & to celebrate the Jewish culture of Galicia.
  • Anne Frank House Well presented and illustrated (eg 3D tour of the annex where she hid)account of her life and Jewish persecution. Choose your language (click on top right of the opened page) for other then English.
  • Josef Mengele site with a focus on his victims and life.  §
  • Nazi Gold, Jewish Accounts, and Swiss Banks For several months, the controversy over Switzerland's role in World War II has raged in the media, among people, and between nations.
  • Leisure Photos of Camp Guards Shock Germans Article from Spiegel on 2007 release of photos of SS officers sitting in canvas chairs, participating in sing-alongs and enjoying their free time at a recreation home near Auschwitz.

Witness accounts

  • Klemperer diaries. Three sites of interest:
    • Extracts from the Klemperer diaries §
    • Surviving the Firestorm English language article with extracts and facsimiles outlining the survival of the diaries. From Der Spiegel
    • The Diaries of Victor Klemperer: discussion by Susie Ehrmann, Jewish Holocaust Museum and Research Centre, Melbourne Australia. She explores two key questions. Firstly, she asks why did many German Jews hesitate for so long, too long, before leaving? They had the luxury of six years, from 1933 to 1939 and even up to 1941, before all doors closed. Why did approximately one-third wait and perish? Secondly, she uses Klemperer's observations to assess Goldhagen’s thesis that German civilian society was deeply, and uniformly, and virulently anti-Semitic throughout the 1930’s. §
  • Anne Frank (1929-1945)  A young girl who hid from the Nazis during the Holocaust, Anne Frank has touched many who have read her famous diary. This is a page with links to many Anne Frank materials.
  • Anne Frank Channel See the only existing film footage of Anne Frank, made during the wedding of her neighbour on 22 July 1941. Anne Frank is seen briefly leaning out of the upstairs window of her house in Amsterdam to get a good look at the bride and groom. It is the only time Anne Frank has ever been captured on film.
  • Personal histories from New York Holocaust Museum. Well set out in a theme wall
  • Memories Project of witness accounts of World War II. This worthwhile Project includes the recalled stories of those who were children then from all over Europe during the war. Brief and personal (and available in several languages) they offer a unique insight into the time, but remember the possible limitations of memoirs written long after an event.
  • Auschwitz survivors, 60 Years on. Witness accounts from the Guardian Review of (Jewish & non Jewish) survivors today (Jan 2005). Puts a real human dimension and context to the history. Click for each account:
    • Maria and Alec Ossowski Polish resistance fighters tell their story.
    • Trude Levi Story of a Hungarian Jew.
    • Leon Greenman The first thing you notice about Leon Greenman's large but shabby terraced house in Ilford is that it has mesh shutters. He had them put up 10 years ago, soon after the National Front threw bricks through the windows.....
    • Barbara Stimler now lives in an immaculate bungalow in Stanmore, north London. "All my life I wanted to have a nice home," she says, "because I lost my home when I was 12 years old."
    • Anita Lasker Wallfisch is a cellist. Music is her life; music also saved her life: she played in the women's orchestra in Auschwitz.
    • Mayer Hersh a Polish Jew, is 78. After the war, he settled in Manchester and worked as a tailor, a high-class tailor.
  • Among Hitler's Executioners on the Eastern Front interview with Annette Schücking-Homeyer who, as a young woman, served as a Red Cross volunteer on the Eastern Front in Ukraine. In the lengthy 2009 Spiegel  interview, the retired judge discusses the horrors committed against the Jews in the Ukraine, and explores the important questions of how everyone knew about them and why, even after the war, most people just wanted to forget.

 

 

Women in Nazi Germany For extensive links click to visit the Nazi Germany section in casahistoria, Women in Totalitarian States.

Sections include Role of women |Nazi women: case studies | Women & art | Eugenics & sterilisation |Women & the camps | Women & War






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the casahistoria Hitler's Germany core sites:
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  Hitler's Rise to Power & Collapse of Weimar
  Hitler Home Page & Structure of the Hitler State
  Living in the Nazi State
  Women & Family in Nazi Germany   
  The End of the Reich  






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