links to the 20th century military regimes of latin america   

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Browse down the page or just click one of these sections.... 
 
      1. General     
      2. 
Operation Condor
     
3. Argentine: The Junta (separate page)
Background to the Military Period | The Military Junta| The Junta & the USA| The Dirty War
      4. Bolivia - Banzer
Banzer| Final campaign of Che Guevara, '67     
      5. Brazil - The Military Regime
Background| Repression| The US & the Military Regime| Aspects of the Military Regime     
6. Chile - Pinochet (separate page)
Coup against Allende| Pinochet & the USA| Pinochet's Chile    
      7. Paraguay - Stroessner & the Stronato
The 1954 Coup| Stroessner & the Stronato
Opposition| Repression| After the Stronato      
      8. Peru
Juan Velasco Alvarado| USA & Military Govt      
      9. Uruguay
The background: the Tupamaros| Military Government| Uruguay & Operation Condor | Repression     
     10. The Aftermath - today 
 
 



  Related casahistoria sites
 
Ideologies of left & right · Single Party States ·
US & Latin America · Latin American History · Malvinas/Falklands
 

 

see what we are reading! 


casahistoria is recommended by many sites including:
   

 
 

 

 

1. General
  
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  • The Military in Latin America Proceso 684, Editorial,  November 1995. Article looks at the linkage between the emergence of militarism in latin America after 1945, US support and its fear of communism in latin America
  • The Nazi Parallel: The National Security State and the Churches excerpted from the book The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism by Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman published 1979. Draws comparisons with nazi ideologies such as the Volk and national unity and the military regimes of the time.
  • Women Resist Dictatorship: voices from Latin America Concise review article by of resistance by Silvia Marina Arrom (Jane’s Professor of Latin American Studies in the History Department of Brandeis University) by women in Argentina, Cuba, Chile and Guatamala. This is a journal item but you have free access to the pdf. Just go down the list of articles and click on the Arrom one.
  • The Military and the State in Latin America Detailed examination of the relationship - and its connections with the USA. By Alain Rouquie, University of California, 1987
  • Civil-Military Relations This pdf sets out structured reading and study outlines for examining the military in Latin America. Worth looking at by students of the period. By Prof. Roger Petersen, MIT  §
  • Guardians of the Nation? Economists, Generals, and Economic Reform in Latin America Useful review of the book by F D Nunn. The central question of this book is why military "regimes" adopted the economic policies they did.
  • School of Assassins looks at Central American generals, but indicates the extent of US involvement in the military regimes....
  • The return of populism. From The Economist, April 2006. Very useful article that examines the rebirth of the populist tradition in Latin America in a historical & global context, explaining the emergence of figures such as Perón and Vargas as well as modern figures such as Chavez. The emphasis is on the historical background placing military aspects in view as a key element.





  







2. Operation Condor

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  • Click for full size.The long and lethal reach of Gen. Pinochet / Declassified memos show Kissinger, Nixon condoned assassination, human rights abuses in Chile Orlando Letelier, a former Chilean ambassador to Washington and a Pinochet opponent, was killed by a car bomb in Washington, D.C., in September 1976 as part of Operation Condor. Associated Press file photo.Operation Condor and Pinochet" Los Angeles Times, Nov 1, 1998. "Operation Condor was a 1970s terrorist conspiracy by six U.S.-supported Latin American governments -- Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay -- to murder their political opponents around the world. Known as Operation Condor, "foreign armies and security services cooperated in dealing with political opponents from one country who crossed into another, and assigned their own men to out-of-country operations to avoid the identification of local agents." Lucy Komisar
  • Operation Condor and Pinochet" Los Angeles Times, Nov 1, 1998. "Operation Condor was a 1970s terrorist conspiracy by six U.S.-supported Latin American governments -- Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay -- to murder their political opponents around the world. Known as Operation Condor, "foreign armies and security services cooperated in dealing with political opponents from one country who crossed into another, and assigned their own men to out-of-country operations to avoid the identification of local agents." Lucy Komisar
  • CIA Knew About Latin Terror Plan  In the 1970s, the CIA knew more than it has revealed until now about the secret terrorist network known as Operation Condor. Washington should have publicly warned prospective victims then and should cooperate with courts today, writes Lucy Komisar, who sought the newly declassified information for seven years. 2002
  • Operation Condor from Wikipedia. Good, basic introductory linked outline. Operation Condor description, outline of US involvement  and links to information made available (by 1999)
  • Pulling Back the Veil on Condor by John Dinges The Nation magazine, 2000
  • Operation Condor (Latin America) Outline of excerpted from the book The Real Terror Network by Edward S. Herman, South End Press. looks at impact of murder squads and ambivalent attitude of US.
  • Official secret documents from Chile prove the existence of Operation Condor In El Pais. Official documents from the Chilean Exterior Relations Ministry prove the existence of Operation Condor, which was responsible of the extermination of thousands of civilians in South America.
  • The Condor Years - How Pinochet and His Allies Brought Terrorism to Three Continents Book review but is detailed and gives a sound account of condor in general
  • Operation Condor from Tercera press Group, Chile. Survey of the Stroessner, Banzer, Videla, Pinochet intelligence and terror network. Unfortunately, now a subscription service. These are courtesy of the Wayback machine. Hence at times a little patience is needed! Includes:
  • Animated outline of the impact of Condor, by country. Despite the wait this works well. Data is clear - especially if your Spanish is limited!  §




  





3. Argentina: The Military Junta
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  El Proceso: The Argentine Military Junta. Links to the Argentine Junta are now very extensive - so much so they have their own casahistoria site.
Included are links on:
1. Background to the Military Period  Perón to Perón |
2. Radical & revolutionary movements
3. The Military, The Military Junta | Church & Junta | 1978 World Cup & the Junta |
4. USA & the Junta
5. The Dirty War, Process | Disappeared |
6. After the dictatorship - the Generals
7. After the dictatorship - 1983-2001 overview Collapse of 2001/2
 

 

 

 

 

 



  



   

4. Bolivia


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  Bolivia For more on the historical background go to the casahistoria site. 

Banzer Resistance, revolution, revolts & terrorism Final campaign of Che Guevara, 1967

 






  



   


5. Brazil 

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  Brazil. For more on the historical background go to the casahistoria site 

 

Repression
  • 20 Exemplary Cases Torture, 1964-1980. Examples from the records of the torture used during military rule
  • Brazilian Army M41 tanks at President Vargas avenue in Rio de Janeiro during the 1964 Brazilian coup d'état on March 31, 1964. Brazil 1961-1964:Introducing the marvelous new world of Death Squads. Background to the coup excerpted from the book Killing Hope by William Blum
  • Torture in Brazil 1970 New York Review of Books article. Includes letter by political prisoners and women prisoners of Ilha das Flores describing the oppression & torture of the military regime. Graphic.
  • Brazilian sites (in Portuguese) that focus on the repression & terrorism of the military regime (all can be google translated into  English)
    • Lembrar É Resistir Site based on a a theatrical piece, "Lembrar É Resistir" (To Remember is to Resist), staged in what had been the downtown DOPS headquarters in São Paulo. Ran for over a year, with a cast including former torture victims.
    • Terrorismo Nunca Mais (no more terror) Remembering the victims of terrorism
    • Centro de Documentação Eremias Delizoicov (Documentation Centre for the disappeared and dead)
  • Brazil: Records on Suppression Destroyed  Guardian 2004 item by Vivian Sequera  explaining how Brazil's army burned all documents about the suppression of a 1970s insurgency against the military dictatorship
The US & the Military Regime
  • US Role in Overthrow of Goulert Govt Declassified Documents shed light on US Role Documents revealed by US National Security Archive show US role in  overthrow of Joao Goulart. Includes link to audio tape of President Johnson urging US take "every step that we can" to support coup.
  • Clerics, exiles, and academics: Opposition to the Brazilian Military dictatorship in the United States, 1969-1974 Latin American Politics and Society, 2003 by James N Green Argues that between 1969 and 1974, a small group of church activists, exiled Brazilians, and academics introduced the issue of human rights in Latin America into the U.S. national body politic & laid the groundwork for a broader solidarity movement with Latin American popular struggles in the late 1970s and 1980s. Very thorough, but long article.
Aspects of the Military Regime


 



  



  


6. Chile  

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Pinochet's Chile Links to the the Pinochet regime are now very extensive - so much so they have their own casahistoria site.
Included are links on:
1. Allende's Chile Allende  | Policies | Overthrow
2. Allende, Pinochet & the USA
3. Pinochet's Chile Policies  | Control





  





7. Paraguay

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Paraguay For more on the historical background go to the casahistoria site.


The 1954 Coup Stroessner The Stroessner Regime - the Stronato Opposition Repression
  • Paraguay's archive of terror BBC article on the Stroessner terror
  • Police Record of Dora Marta Landi a captured Argentine in March 1977.She was detained by  the Department of Investigations in Asunción—and then disappeared—along with her husband Alejandro José Logoluso Di Martino, and  José Nell, both from Argentina, along with two Uruguayan citizens, Nelson Rodolfo Santana Scotto and Gustavo Edison Inzaurralde. Click for the full record.Operation Condor Documents: Rendition in the Southern Cone Revealed from Paraguays "Archive of Terror". US National Security Archive essay intro & documents relating to the pivotal case of Chilean Jorge Isaac Fuentes Alarcón and Argentine Amílcar Santucho, who were detained in Paraguay in May 1975, and whose interrogation under torture led to the decision by Chilean secret police chief Manual Contreras to formalize coordination against the left among the Southern Cone military states.
  • A Terrorist (& Fall-Guys) at Work in Paraguay By John Clancy, [24 Nov 2001]. Notes on a BBC Documentary (1992). After three decades of systematic persecution in Paraguay, opponents have been given complete access to detailed documents referring to a dictator's regime propped up by the West.
  • Colonial past, troubled present By Kevin G. Hall, San Jose Mercury News, Sunday 18 February 2001. Paraguay—In a musty, water-stained office in Paraguay's main Justice building, thousands of documents from the darkest days of former dictator Gen. Alfredo Stroessner's 35-year reign are rotting.
  • Beacon or Brushwood? Go to page 10 as it presents a Case Study of Human Rights in Paraguay during the Stronato. Mike Mecham document for Chatham House.
After the Stronato
  • The Enduring General Interesting 2004 article by Isabel Hilton for Granta magazine describing her impressions of the impact of the Stroessner period, firstly after a research visit in 1989 shortly after his fall and then in 1991. Good feeling of time and place. Unfortunately now pay only - but may be available on free trial...
  • Transition to Democracy in Paraguay. Lengthy and useful (1998) review by Frank O Mora of the Lambert and  Nickson book.







  





8. Peru 

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  Peru. For more on the historical background go to the casahistoria site. 

 

Juan Velasco Alvarado biographies
USA and Peru
  Shining Path Rebellion  - go to casahistoria Peru page 





  


 




9. Uruguay

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  Uruguay For more on the historical background go to the casahistoria site. 

The background: the Tupamaros Military Government Uruguay & Operation Condor Repression



  


 




10. The aftermath - today 

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  Argentina Go here for more casahistoria links to the aftermath in Argentina
  Chile Go here for more casahistoria links to the aftermath in Chile 







  



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