extensive links to the history of Spanish America go to the
casahistoria Catholic Missions
Independence from Spain
Francisco de Miranda
Bolívar's War excellent overview of the many complex
campaigns of Simón Bolívar. Keep this bookmarked as you look at
the intricacies of the wars....
Bolívar Useful history by Allen Wells
Simon Bolivar, El Libertador About com article of 3 sides,
well linked to introductory articles on the other liberators by
Pages of Glory, The Southamerican Washington Online book by
Daniel A Del Río. The Historical Text Archive.
The Simon Bolivar Virtual library good resource for
Bolivar's ideas & writing. Also in
The Political Thought of Bolivar Brief introduction by G E
Letter from Jamaica In 1815, sheltering in the British
colony of Jamaica Bolivar wrote this letter in which he outlined
his vision for a unified and independent Latin America.
Message to the Congress of Angostura, 1819 Bolivar's famous
address distinguishing the Venezuelan character from the North
American one, with its "weak and complicated system" of
government, and emphasizing the Venezuelan revolutionaries'
extraordinary and complicated position ("We are not Europeans;
we are not Indians"), advocated a parliamentary system based on
the British model, with a hereditary senate.
Manuela Saenz: "Long maligned, Simon Bolivar's lover
emerging as heroine". LA Times article from 1998 on the lover of
Martin For extensive links go to the casahistoria
Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme
Sympathetic & comprehensive narrative of the latin American
Wars of Independence. Gives a new appreciation & respect for
the social values of Bolivar and San Martin especially.
Unfortunately, all were unappreciated in the ensuing states
that they fought for - in particular by the criolla
landowning families who undermined their reforms thus
creating the years of chaos that followed - very much to the
present. A worthy reference on the period but too heavy on
military details for the general reader and limited on
recent Spanish language scholarship.
development of individual countries
Triple Alliance war
Peruvian - Spanish (Guano) War 1865-1866
Pacific War 1879-1884
The Triple Alliance War, 1864-1870 Straightforward account
The Triple Alliance War, 1864-70 Conflict that put the
Argentina Confederation, Brazilian Empire and Uruguay up against
the Republic of Paraguay. The (somewhat confused) site tells the
story and has sections on related military developments in the
southern cone. At times it needs patience to use. Also: turn off
5. UK & US Involvement
in Latin America
US Involvement in Latin
- The British: End of Empire in the
Slaughterhouse: Fábrica Colόn & Corned Beef Article about
Fábrica Colόn, now Pueblo Liebig, the frigorífico across the
river Uruguay from the Fray Bentos Anglo Corned beef factory.
Good history of the plant and an outline of their position
today. Pictures of Fray Bentos Anglo plant today. By Andrew
Graham-Yooll, senior editor, Buenos Aires Herald.
- The British in Argentina: End
of empire, la Forestal Article on the rise and demise of the
Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Company by Andrew
Graham-Yooll. See also
Producción del tanino - La Forestal (in Spanish but easily
googled) for a good description of the processes as well as the
history. Very useful for images, bibliography.
- The British and the Argentine
beef trade by Andrew Graham-Yooll
- El Anglo and Fray Bentos
Interesting extract from Lost Cowboys by Hang Wangford. Detailed
history of the Anglo frigorifico including a "tour" of the site
today. Illustrated. (Although Uruguay, its impact on Argentina
makes it worthwhile reading)
Bentos... a very well known name Across the river in
Uruguay, but despite a layout marred by pop-ups this has good
information and illustrations on the Fray Bentos plant and the
Liebig company. Wonderful pictures of pies in tins... (In
- The British and the
Argentine railways Overview by Andrew Graham-Yooll
- of the relationship with links to many other sites on the
history of railways in Argentina.
Illustrated railway history of Argentina in English. Just as
it says on the box ..... §
nationalisation of the British Railways in Uruguay The aim
of this paper is to study in detail how British economic
interests retreated from Uruguay after the Second World War. By
Giorgio Fodor Dipartimento di Economia Università di Trento,
Africans in Latin America
Black into White in Nineteenth Century Spanish America:
Afro-American Assimilation in Argentina and Costa Rica. Essay
article from the Journal of Comparative Studies by Lowell
Gudmundson (May 1984)
in the Terror: The African Cultural Legacy in the Americas
Offers a discussion of African ideas regarding politics, music,
and religion as found in the Americas. Focuses on the musical
contributions in Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, Cuba, Jamaica,
Puerto Rico and Uruguay. By C. Daniel Dawson, Institute for
Freedom Studies, Northern Kentucky University
Africa in the Americas Excellent visual site from
Texas Council for the Humanities Resource Centre.
Accompanied by these essays:
Africa in the Americas: Blacks in Mexico by Patrick J.
Carroll (Also in Spanish:
La poblacion negra en México)
A Third World in the New: African Slaves in Portuguese America
by Richard Graham, University of Texas at Austin (Also in
Un Tercer Mundo en el Nuevo Mundo: los Esclavos Africanos en la
the African Diaspora in the Americas Philip Howard,
University of Houston demonstrates how Africans employed their
benevolent organizations to develop African communities and
identities in nineteenth century Cuba and so protect against and
rival the white communities.
Africans and Indians: Only in America By William Katz.
Interesting article looks at the use made of African "indians"
by white European settlers and governments across the Americas.
7. General Latin America History links
Why there is no Latin American History... A very
valid article by the Department of Portuguese & Spanish studies
at the University of Manchester, arguing that Latin
American history should not be seen in isolation from either
whole-American or European history §
Text Archive Excellent resource. Good articles, well linked
and supported with text bibliographies. Very good place to start
your research before moving onto the texts. Contains articles
and links to the national histories of all latin American
Molloy's Internet Resources for Latin America A massive
resource page of links to databases and information sources on
Latin America (essentially for current events). New Mexico State
Research Sites for Latin American History Since 1826 This is
a very comprehensive site created and maintained by Richard W.
Slatta Professor of History. Many of the links on the
Latin American pages come from here.
Latin American Network Information Center (LANIC) Very
Extensive bilingual links and information from the University of
Texas at Austin. The History sections for each country give good
basic introductory links. Broken down by topic and area,
Sources and general resources on latin America very thorough
- and recently revamped and provided with clear index. Strongest
on general resources, journals, country institutional links.
World History Archives Good source for south American
sites in English. Best on Cuba and Caribbean. South American
articles are more to do with the last 10-20 years.
- The Hispanic
Reading Room. Entry to the US Library of Congress
materials on Latin and Caribbean America A site for serious
study. Not easy to use, but very comprehensive.
HLAS (Handbook of Latin American Studies) Search Page This
is a most important tool for finding scholarly books and
articles on the region.
- LAMP (Latin
American Microforms) An excellent resource: many key
libraries and collections have been turned into pdf's by the
University of New Mexico. For serious research.
Latin American Aviation Historical Society Excellent site
which has produced a large library of detailed and well
presented articles on the history of Latin American Aviation.
Political Database of the Americas Wide-ranging information
on the political process, parties, constitutions, and more
- Americas.Org A US
portal site with a focus on Latin America. Good current affairs
articles and those with a current historical value. A useful
The Fitzgibbon Survey of Latin American Democracy: In 1945
Prof Fitzgibbon, a UCLA political scientist, asked a panel of
ten U.S. latinamericanist scholars to rank the twenty
Latin American republics according to a set of criteria that he
felt would measure the extent of democracy in each of the
countries. This has their results and an update in 2000
LA Press Links to Major Latin American and US Newspapers
that cover current events in the region