catholic mission & settlement: links to the early ibero/catholic mission influences on the development of latin america   

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Browse down the page or just click one of these sections.... 
 
1. Spanish & Portuguese America
Population & Settlement
2. Mission settlement
The Missions as Colonisers
Economics
3. Mission settlements: Misiones region
(North east Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, southern Brazil)
4. Mission settlements: Argentina
5. Mission settlements: Brazil, Paraguay & Uruguay
6. Mission settlements:  Bolivia & Peru
7. New Spain - separate page
(present day Mexico & southern USA)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other related casahistoria pages:

   
  19th century Latin America
  20th century Military Regimes
  The US & Latin America
  Imperialism
  
  Individual Country sites:
Argentina · Bolivia · Brazil · Chile · Cuba · Malvinas/Falklands  ·  Mexico · Paraguay · Peru · Uruguay




 

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1. Spanish & Portuguese America: Population & Settlement  
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Imperialism Go to this casahistoria site for links to imperialism & colonial settlement in a global context.

For this section casahistoria is indebted to the articles & powerpoint presentations of Robert H Jackson which give a unique and vivid picture of Spanish & Portuguese settlements and missions across the Americas, but especially in south America. This extensive library can be found collectively on this page as well as in the relevant individual casahistoria country pages.

 

Spanish settlement
Portuguese settlement

 

  

 

 

 




2. Mission Settlement
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General 
  • Revisiting Japan’s ‘Christian Century’by Derek Massarella, Professor of History, Faculty of Economics, Chuo University, Tokyo. Academic article ultimately looking at the christian missionary impulse and the treatment as well as response of missionaries in (16th/17th century) Japan. However it argues this in the context of theories expounded originally with relation to the missions of the Americas. Interesting initial section on the 16th century philosophical justification for missionary imperialism that centred on the question of whether the native (Americans) were or were not, natural slaves. If so, then the Spanish had the right, and the obligation, to conquer and convert them by force ...
  • Click for  larger version of the map of missions in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay areain  Portuguese The Jesuit Missions in the Americas Textual introductions, population data, original plans and present day images of Jesuit Missions across the Americas - Bolivia, Peru as well as the Misiones area -  (and beyond). By R H Jackson. Powerpoint pdf file.
  • The Jesuit Missions (Reducciones) in South America Outline of missions, Useful maps and a list of remaining missions. This will help to give a foundation of knowledge to make the most of the powerpoints. 
  • The Jesuit Missions in South America. Another clear overview. Also a good place to start
  • Mission Churches in Northern Mexico and Paraguay R H Jackson introduces this powerpoint with: "The missions, also known as doctrinas or reducciones, were to become politically autonomous indigenous communities, organized as Christian utopias. The new towns were to be built on a grid plan with a central plaza in the center of the town. The church was to be the dominant structure in the towns. Although there were differences in the mission programs in the various fringe regions of Spanish America, there were also many similarities, and the mission program followed a basic blueprint."  By R H Jackson. Powerpoint pdf file.
  • Missions on the Fringes of Spanish America: A Comparison  This is a compendium of the materials from most of R H Jacksons presentations on the Spanish, Portuguese and Jesuits. A large download, but a mass of visual evidence. Brief textual introductions place the developments in a context, then they are presented by geographical area. North America first, then South America (page 76) By R H Jackson. Powerpoint pdf file
  • Contemporary images of missions. What they look like today. RH Jackson powerpoint.
  • In God's Name Limited but useful images form a selection of Jesuit missions
The Missions as Colonisers  Economics


  

 






3. Mission settlements: Misiones region

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     (North east Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, southern Brazil)


  • Click for  larger version of the map of missions in the Upper Parana area.The Jesuit Missions History good place to start for a general overview of the purpose and role of the Jesuit missions despite being provided as tourist background information. much better than most usual "guides"  
  • Os Sete Povos: The Trans-Uruguay Missions Excellent illustrated powerpoint type survey of the Jesuit Missions as they were (from contemporary drawings, and how they are today). Good statistical data. By R H Jackson. Powerpoint pdf file.
  • The Guarani under Spanish Rule in the Rio de la Plata Useful review of book  The Guarani under Spanish Rule in the Rio de la Plata by Barbara Ganson which gives a clear, concise, overview of the historical situation. Published in Journal of Social History, Winter, 2004 & written by Jerry W. Cooney
  • Spanish Missions in the Lowlands Regions of South America Thorough visual and graphical presentation of the Jesuit missions of the Uruguay/ Brazil/ Argentina/ Paraguay region. Very clear. By R H Jackson. Powerpoint pdf file
  • The Jesuit Missions of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil  Plans, pictures, population data, brief textual outlines. Very thorough,  set out by modern country. By R H Jackson. Powerpoint pdf file.
  • The Jesuits Missions (Reducciones) in Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina, Brazil  Mainly outline but give an overview. See also  From Marco Ramerini's Dutch & Portuguese Colonialism site
  • Mission Frontiers in the Rio de la Plata and Northern Mexico Essay by RH Jackson. This essay compares patterns of development in missions in the Rio de la Plata region established and managed by the Jesuits between 1607 and 1767, and the Baja California missions initiated in 1697 and also run by Jesuits, until the expulsion of the order in 1767/1768 from the Spanish dominions. A major theme of this essay is a comparison of missions established by the Jesuits in two regions with very distinct environments, in order to see what modifications the Black Robes had to make to the general blueprint for the mission program that envisioned the creation of communities of sedentary farmers and artisans who would pay taxes to the Crown and provide labour for Spanish enterprises. It also compares and contrasts patterns of development of missions on two frontiers.
  • Colonial Demography in the Americas: Case Studies from the Fringes of Empire RH Jackson This essay uses sacramental registers and censuses to document the process of demographic change among populations living in missions in two parts of Spanish America, the northern frontier of New Spain (colonial Mexico) and greater Paraguay (parts of modern Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil) in the Rio de la Plata region of South America.
  • Vanished Arcadia, A: being some account of the Jesuits in Paraguay 1607-1767 the 1900 account by R.B. Cunninghame  Graham published as an Etext by the Project Gutenberg.



  
    



   

4. Mission settlements: Argentina 

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5. Mission settlements: Brazil, Uruguay & Paraguay 

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Brazil Uruguay
  • Sao Lourenco Martir Sao Lourenco Martir Jesuit Mission to the Guarani Survey of the San Lorenzo Mission in modern day Argentina. R H Jackson introduces this powerpoint with: " In the 1680s, the Jesuits returned to the territory east of the Uruguay River, and eventually moved/established seven missions in the region. Two, San Juan Bautista and San Lorenzo, were established with Guarani populations from existing missions. The Portuguese establishment of Colonia do Sacramento near Buenos Aires in the Banda Oriente prompted the return to the disputed borderlands".  Illustrated with contemporary pictures, modern images and data. Pdf file Click for an even larger version
  • San Lorenzo Martir: A Jesuit Mission in the Service of Spanish Policy Essay by R H Jackson relating the Mission to the area around Colonia and rivalry with the Portuguese.
  • The Population of San Lorenzo Martir Mission, 1690-1827 This RH Jackson essay examines the evolution of the population of San Lorenzo Martir mission, established at a site east of the Uruguay River in 1690, and the consequences of the Guarani living on the mission of a series of mortality crises in the Jesuit missions of Paraguay between 1730 and 1740 that is well documented in contemporary censuses
  • San Miguel Mission to the Guarani By R H Jackson. Thorough visual and graphical presentation. Very clear. Powerpoint pdf file.
Paraguay

  
  




6. Mission settlements:  Bolivia & Peru

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Bolivia
  • Bolivia's Jesuit missions Article from History Today, July 1, 1997 by Richard Chamberlin
  • Jesuit Missions of the Chiquitos  Survey of the Chiquitos Missions in Bolivia.  R H Jackson introduces this powerpoint with: "Beginning in 1691, Jesuit missionaries established missions in the Chiquitos and Moxos regions of eastern Bolivia, among sedentary agriculturalists. San Francisco Javier founded in 1691 was the first. Eventually there were 10 missions in Chiquitos." Illustrated with contemporary pictures, modern images and data.   By R H Jackson. Also available to download as Chiquitos Missions (a very large 114,862 k download) Powerpoint presentation
  • Missions in a Musical Key - The Jesuit Reductions of Chiquitos, Bolivia Colourful, clearly presented. By Gauvin Alexander Bailey, assistant professor of Renaissance and Baroque Art at Clark University. Well illustrated piece - unfortunately, no music.  §
Peru
  • Santa Catalina Convent, Arequipa Established in the 16th century, Santa Catalina convent is perhaps the largest such institution in the world. It was a haven for daughters of the local elite, who lived a pampered if isolated life. (Beautiful) images of the convent. Illustrated with contemporary pictures, modern images and data.  By R H Jackson. Powerpoint pdf file.




  





7. New Spain (present day Mexico & southern USA) 

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Colonial Mexico Please see the extensive casahistoria site for links to early Spanish mission settlement in Mexico and California


 

A full updated  list of R H Jackson's work can be found at: H-Net Presentations

 




the casahistoria core latin American sites:
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19th century Latin America
20th century Latin America
20th century Military Regimes
The US & Latin America
Catholic Mission & Settlement

 


  Individual Country sites:
Argentina · Bolivia · Brazil · Chile · Cuba · Malvinas/Falklands  ·  
Mexico · Paraguay · Peru · Uruguay




 
     
 
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