imperialism: links to 19th & 20th century imperialism   

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   Click for the full image of this French political cartoon from the late 1890s. A pie represents "Chine" (French for China) and is being divided between caricatures of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, William II of Germany (who is squabbling with Queen Victoria over a borderland piece, whilst thrusting a knife into the pie to signify aggressive German intentions), Nicholas II of Russia, who is eyeing a particular piece, the French Marianne (who is diplomatically shown as not participating in the carving, and is depicted as close to Nicholas II, as a reminder of the Franco-Russian Alliance), and the Meiji Emperor of Japan, carefully contemplating which pieces to take. A stereotypical Qing official throws up his hands to try and stop them, but is powerless. This work is in the public domain in the United States, and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less.     casahistoria - web site for students of modern history!






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1. Imperialism: theory and practice     


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For extensive links to the early history of European imperialism in Latin America go to the casahistoria Catholic Missions in Latin America site.


The 19th Century theoretical basis

Documents:
 

Decolonisation Go to the casahistoria decolonisation home site for links to the end of the European Empires.





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2. The European experience - Continental Europe

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  British imperialism For British imperialism go to the extensive casahistoria site.
Sections on: The Growth of Empire; Living in the Empire; Territories & regions of influence; British India; General sites on the British Empire.

Belgium

  • Leopold II a brief bio. and another from Wikipaedia §
  • King Leopold's Ghost A  review of  Adam Hochschild's book on the Belgian atrocities in the Congo. The book is essential reading - a story of greed, terror and heroism in colonial Africa. Depressingly, the final two chapters make it clear how the same pattern of exploitation and cruelty was common across colonial Africa.
  • Adam Hochschild -- King Leopold's Ghost a review, but contains a good narrative account of the books main story.
  • Leopold & ED Morel Surprisingly(?) balanced account of the conflict over Leopold's Congo and the rubber exploitation from BouncingBalls, a rubber industry site
  • The Congo Atrocities: The Casement Report extracts from the 1904 report of the British Consul, Roger Casement, on the Administration of the Congo Free State. Casement, executed later in World War 1 for treason as an Irish nationalist was instrumental in bringing the cruelty of the Congo to world notice.
  • History of the Congo Created by literature majors at the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, this is the history background to their hypertext annotation of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness §
  • US Anti-Imperialism From 1898 to 1920 the Anti-Imperialist League in its many forms produced a wealth of opinions and distributed them through various forms, released annual reports, and published speeches, broadsides, and addresses to the American people. This revamped site links to many of these but now has much more of value to students of US anti-imperialism.
  • The Kodak vs. the King  Good illustrated powerpoint type item on the influence of photographic evidence in the Congo reform movement. Click for full screen view. from the same college source see also these two accounts of the Congo before 1914:
 
Denmark
 
The Netherlands

 

France

 

       Indo China 

  Indochina go to the casahistoria site for links to French involvement in Indo China: origins and collapse.

 

Germany

  • German Empire in 1914.Imperialism: A German Viewpoint The following extract from Friedrich Fabri's book Does Germany Need Colonies, published in 1879, makes the German argument for colonial expansion, one similar to those made by English and French writers of the period.
  • Image Collection of German Colonial Society. Based at Frankfurt Uni. Searchable image archive (in German)
  • German Colonial Archives. Excellent Resource. The Center for Research Libraries holds a number of resources relating to Germany’s foreign affairs and colonial operations. These primary and secondary sources illuminate the German experience of colonialism.
  • German Colonial Architecture in Togo from UNESCO. Something different .....  §
  • Winterton Collection: Photos of European East Africa Northwestern University Library of more than 7,600 photos chronicling the European colonization of East Africa between 1860 and 1960. Taken by European explorers, colonial officials, settlers, missionaries, military officials, travellers, and early commercial photographers, the photos document the changing relationships among Africans and between Africans and Europeans during a period of dramatic change. Excellent resource assembled by the British collector Humphrey Winterton.
  • A Colonial Architecture Adapted to Cameroon's Climate and the same again ... Both are good ways to look at European adaptation to the colonies.  §
        Herero 

Researchers should be aware that since the publication of several books on the Herero war, this has become an area for "holocaust" denial by some historians.

  

Portugal & Spain (early American Empires) 

Catholic Missions in Latin America For extensive links to the early history of European imperialism in Latin America go to the casahistoria  site.

Emigration

 

Emigration from Europe For extensive links to the history of emigration from Europe during this period go to the casahistoria subsite. Also includes specific sites on immigration to:


The imperialism latecomers: USA & Japan For links to the growth of imperialism in Japan & the USA go the separate casahistoria site.





 

Decolonisation Go to the casahistoria decolonisation home site for: 







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3. The European experience in Africa

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See also the individual countries in section 2.

 
  • Europeans in Africa: European Imperialism 15th - early 19th centuries Set out in the form of a detailed timeline with links to articles. By Central Oregon Community College
  • Colonial Africa Lecture which gives a brief, but valuable overview of origins & impact. By Professor Gerhard Rempel, Western New England College.
  • Europe Meets to Divide Africa In 1884-85 European Powers met at Berlin to decide how they would divide up Africa between themselves. About.com introductory article
  • French Colonialism This speech by Jules Ferry, who was prime minister of France twice during the 1880s, conveys the attitude of Europeans to colonisation in Africa.
  • Colonialism of Africa Lecture notes: bare minimum details or a quick background... Produced by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. (Slow to load!)  §
  • African History Online - Colonial Period Large number of relevant links to African imperialism south of the Sahara. Very thorough and excellent descriptions to help you to find what you want.
  • Speaking with Vampires: Rumor and History in Colonial Africa During the colonial period, Africans told each other terrifying rumours that Africans who worked for white colonists captured unwary residents and took their blood........ By Luise White (Univ of California, 2000)
  • Congo Expedition May 1909 - November 1915 American Museum of Natural History exhibit on the US expedition. Very well produced. Lavish visual. oral and documentary examples as well as maps, and images. Gives a good flavour of the Congo habitat at the time
  • Colonising Egypt Timothy Mitchell examines the peculiarity of Western conceptions of order and truth through a re-reading of Europe's colonial encounter with nineteenth-century Egypt. (University of California ,1991)
  • The Story of the Suez Canal, from All the Year Round, January 8, 1876 - Islamic History Sourcebook
  • Images of Colonial Africa (Kenya) This collection of photographs taken by Laura Collins, a missionary in Kenya shows the colony during the early 1900s. Wheaton College.

Slavery

Slavery For extensive links to the European involvement in the Slave Trade from Africa go to the young casahistoria Slavery site.

 
  • Colonisation of Liberia Colonisation with a difference: The American Colonization Society was founded in 1817 with the aim of returning African-Americans to Africa. In 1822 it established a colony in West Africa, which became Liberia in 1847. By 1867 more than 13,000 African-Americans had moved there. A Library of Congress Resource Guide for the Study of Black History & Culture.





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4. Gunboat Diplomacy

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the casahistoria imperialism core sites:
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  Imperialism home
  British Imperialism
  USA & Japan, the latecomers
  The native experience   
  The anti colonialists 
  European Emigration 
  Decolonisation







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