2. Domestic Policy
Key Domestic Documents:
3. Women in the Franco Era
Spanish woman's history in the 20th century
Excellent overview from the 19th
century background to the post Franco era. Part of the European
Comenius project this is well set out with brief narrative,
illustrations and chronolgies. Good place to start.
The Opinions of Spanish Women Concerning the Dictatorship of
Francisco Franco Useful concise research piece which
examines the question of how do women, adults when Franco ruled,
view Franco as a person and political leader and issues arising
out of this. Research base is limited but still makes for
interesting and quick reading. Conclusion: older women continue
to perceive Franco positively nearly 30 years after the end of
his dictatorship especially if they were better able to support
their families during his regime, and if they are well educated.
True Catholic Womanhood: Gender Ideology in Franco's Spain
review of the book by Aurora G. Morcillo but it does provide an
overview of the key issues facing women during the Franco era.
Fascist Women Speak Useful item with pictures on the
Sección Femenina - "Women Who Combined Religious Zeal and Social
Justice". From the International Museum of Women.
Dulce Chacón: The Sleeping Voice
Review by Elizabeth Nash of the book that tells of the women who
lost the war: female prisoners who suffered atrocities of
Spain's most miserable epoch, and were forced to remain silent.
mujer en el franquismo - women & Francoism. Useful concise
site looks at the key elements and includes a chronology of main
events impacting on attitudes to women. See also:
La educación de la mujer bajo el franquismo which contains a
selection of texts from theeducation of women. All can be google
La Mujer Durante El Franquismo - women during the Franco
era. Well sourced item which google translates easily looking at
the subjection of women into a patriarchical society after 1939.
Sections on women and the press as well as the family, at work,
La mujer en el franquismo Women and Francoism. Simple
(educational?) slideshow images and
You will need to sign on to slideshare but this is free and very
Mujer y Dictadura Franquista - women and the franco
dictatorship. Academic article by Manuel Ortiz Heras, (Univ of
Castilla La Mancha). As a pdf this will not google translate
easily if it is needed in english.
La mujer Bajo el franquismo - Women under Franco. Long item
(book?) on women during the Franco Era from the Univ Jaume I de
Castello. Well divided into sections to illustrate impact on
aspects of life such as education, work, family, church,
prostitution and abortion. As a pdf this will not google
translate easily if it is needed in English.
in Totalitarian Societies Go to this casahistoria
site for extensive links to the role of women in
Nazi Germany, Stalin's Russia and
Repression & Control
Prison Labor in Franco’s Spain (go to
page 7 of the pdf) By Nicolás Sánchez-Albornoz professor
emeritus of history at NYU. Born in Madrid in 1926, he was
arrested in 1947 for student activism in the University of
Madrid and sentenced to seven years hard labour in the
Cuelgamuros prison camp. He was one of thousands of Republican
political prisoners forced to work on the construction of the
Valley of the Fallen, destined to be Franco’s tomb. §
- Forced Labour in
Franco's Spain: Workforce Supply, Profits and Productivity
Complex, academic article analyses the forced labour system
created in Spain during the Civil War and maintained during the
Francoist dictatorship. By Fernando Mendiola Gonzalo,
Universidad Pública de Navarra.
Germans helped Franco run civil war death camps
Looks at question of whether Germans helped organise
extermination camps in Spain during the civil war.
Independent article by Elizabeth Nash
The "Disappeared" of
Censorship & cultural control
5. Foreign Policy
Nazi Germany/World War 2
- Two introductory articles, clearly set out from
International School History Web:
Franco's Collaboration with Germany Since the unlikely
survival of Francisco Franco's regime through the Second World
War, historians have puzzled over the extent to which the Franco
government had collaborated with Adolf Hitler's Germany. Aspects
of this included in the (English language) review article by
J.W. Goda of Carlos Collado Seidel, "Zufluchtsstätte für
Nationalsozialisten? Spanien, die Alliierten und die Behandlung
deutscher Agenten 1944-1947"
Spain during World War II Review item by David A. Messenger
givesa good, clear outline of the issues at play behind franco's
response to the War. Reviews Wayne H. Bowen's book
The Ghost Battalion: Spaniards In The Waffen-SS, 1944-1945
by Wayne H. Bowen Though Spain officially remained
neutral throughout World War II, in 1941, Franco on his own
initiative provided a unit of soldiers, known as the Blue
Division for the shirts worn by its Falangist enlistees, and an
air squadron to help the Nazis in their war against Soviet
communism and repay his debt to Hitler. (The original
2001 article is now "paid for" only. This is a copy posted
Did Franco want to bring Spain into World War II? Excerpt
from Christian Leitz, "Spain and Holocaust"
The Avalon Project : The Spanish Government and the Axis
document - Notes on Conversation Between General Franco and
Ambassador Dieckhoff, December 15, 1943
Hermann Göring and Nazi Germany's Economic Exploitation of
Nationalist Spain. A useful review of Christian Leitz's
book by Wayne Bowen for H-Net
Franco's Nazi haven - Spanish dictator Francisco Franco
(Unfortunately this is now a pay per article, but
can still be read using the free trial offer....) Franco's Spain
gave unstinting aid to the Axis powers during World War II.
After the war Spain became a refuge for escaped Nazis, fascists
and supporters ...History Today, July 1, 1997
by Paul Preston
also the casahistoria site:
Post war relations with
Los europeos contra el franquismo Discusses the general
opposition, mostly from the European community, that the Franco
regime faced in 1975 after five prisoners sentenced with the
death penalty were executed.
franquismo contra los europeos Discusses and analyses the
antagonistic attitude that Franco’s administration adopted
against the governments that opposed it.
Gen Franco wanted to declare war on Portugal 2008 Daily
Telegraph article revealing that Spain was ready to declare war
on neighbouring Portugal to stem the perceived threat of
communism during the final months of General Francisco Franco's
Franco - transition & coming to terms
reconciliation and removing the Franco remnants
This has become a key issue in recent
years. These link to articles on the start of the current process:
justice begins at home (2003) Looks at
the uneasy question of why Spain's lawyers are so prominent in
pursuing Latin American generals but less keen to pursue issues
arising out of the Franco period. Carlos Alberto Montaner
Spain: Investigating the Crimes of Franco Dictatorship The
webpage presents an article on Judge Baltazar Garzon, his recent
protests against the atrocities committed during Franco’s
government, and his investigative attempts to unearth the truth
of various assassinations that took place during Franco’s
Judge opens inquiry into Spain's 'red terror' victims
2008 Guardian article on how Baltasar Garzón, judge who chased
up many latin American generals, has asked Spain's authorities
for a list of those killed on the orders of the tribunals set up
by the leftwing Republican authorities in Madrid during the
three-year civil war that ended in 1939.
Association for the
Recovery of Historical Memory
Extensive Republican site with maps of graves as well as
articles on the repression under Franco
La Memoria de los nuestros blog
site to remember the (nationalist) atrocities of the war. (The
web site can be the subject of attacks by nationalists)
Clic for the
archive copy of the original site which has links to further
detail. Most are still available on the Waybck Archive.
and Exile Association
A Republican veterans website. Obits, activities, articles.
A rarity - a website of the right to remember the war.
Unfortunately, its lavish design (Java based pages) mean it
cannot be google translated - perhaps this is also a defence
against web attacks?