decolonization: links to 20th century decolonisation & the end of the formal european empires   

Site Network: café historia - our news site | who we are | site map | terms | cookies | image use | contact us | click to see who is online with you!

     casahistoria - web site for students of modern history!






  on this page
 
 
Newly updated and checked links 
 
Browse down the page or just click one of these sections.... 
  
 1. General links to decolonisation
Key Documents
 2. The Impact of World War 2
 3. Decolonisation in Asia
British southeast Asia
Dutch East Indies
French southeast Asia
 4. Decolonisation in India
 5. Decolonisation in the Americas
19th century
Cuba | Malvinas/Falklands
 6. Aftermath
 
   Decolonisation in Africa (separate site)
 
 Other casahistoria imperialism core sites:
 
  Imperialism home
  British Imperialism
  USA & Japan, the latecomers
 
 The native experience   
  The anti colonialists 
 
European Emigration 

  Site Map - Imperialism microsite


 

 

 

see what we are reading! 


casahistoria is recommended by many sites including:
   

 
 

 

 

1. General links to decolonisation  
  
go to top of page


Imperialism Go to the casahistoria imperialism home site for sections on the Theory & Practice of imperialism; Continental European Imperialism; The European experience in Africa; Gunboat Diplomacy.

 

 

Case studies (for original documents) 
1. The Dominions
2. Ghana (West Africa)
3. India
4. Ireland

Background information 
1. The Dominions
2. Ghana (West Africa)
3. India
4. Ireland
5. Overview

 

The anti-British, nationalist model: Irish nationalists In the 1930's many emerging nationalist groups within the British empire looked to the example of the IRA for a possible way forward. For information on the Irish revolutionary period of the early 20th century go to the casahistoria site Ireland and the British  



Key Documents for the process of decolonisation:




casahistoria home                            visit caféhistoria for updates and current topic newsClick me and go to the café!





2. The Impact of World War II 

go to top of page

  • The Atlantic Charter text of the Churchill, FD Roosevelt Charter of 1941 which appeared to promise an end to colonialism. Includes an interesting facsimile of the Churchill copy.
  • Colonies, Colonials and World War Two African, Indian, Caribbean and other colonial troops and personnel played a crucial role in supporting the Allied cause in World War Two. So much so, that Marika Sherwood wonders whether the war could have been won without their help. For the BBC

Far East

  • Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942 Large website dedicated to the military events of World War II in the region that were to culminate in eventual independence.
  • Japanese occupation Outline history  from Network Indonesia
  • Two articles on the Indian Army by Mark Tully:
    • Stand at East. Sir Mark Tully presents a testimony of the Indian Army. Links to the BBC radio series which can be heard from the site.
    • The army history forgot  Article on the role of the Indian soldiers who fought in the British Army. Despite being hampered by antiquated equipment and Winston Churchill's prejudice, they helped inflict a crushing defeat on the Japanese. Mark Tully looks at their crucial role in this Independent article
  • Empire Of the Sun Japan's conquest of Singapore shattered the myth of British invincibility. By Jan Morris

The Chinese War of Resistance against Japan See the casahistoria page.

 

  Christopher Bayly: Forgotten Armies,
The Fall of British Asia, 1941-1945


The main value of this tome to the general reader is most likely to be the early chapters before the war. This outlines most clearly the nature (arrogance and decadence?) of the British presence in Malaya & Burma. The forgotten armies of the conflict are dealt with very methodically, but this makes for drier reading.









casahistoria home                            visit caféhistoria for updates and current topic newsClick me and go to the café!






3. Decolonisation in Asia

go to top of page


  Imperialism Go to the casahistoria imperialism home site for sections on the Theory & Practice of imperialism; Continental European Imperialism; The European experience in Africa; Gunboat Diplomacy.

 

British southeast Asia
 
        Burma (Myanmar)

 

 

        Malaya (Malaysia & Singapore)

        Brunei
  • Brunei A useful outline history. Scroll down the page for sections on colonial era and decolonisation  From the Asean Focus Group.

 

Dutch East Indies (Indonesia)

 


French southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia)
  Indochina  & Vietnam For extensive links to decolonisation and conflict in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, go to these casahistoria sites.

 


Diego Garcia - reverse decolonisation.....

 




casahistoria home                            visit caféhistoria for updates and current topic newsClick me and go to the café!




4. Decolonisation in India


go to top of page


  Imperialism Go to the casahistoria imperialism home site for sections on the Theory & Practice of imperialism; Continental European Imperialism; The European experience in Africa; Gunboat Diplomacy.



Unfortunately, many Indian sites are shortlived. These links are (hopefully) the more robust, currently available sites, or the lost but valuable ones, courtesy of the wayback machine.

 

  • Independent India Well supported and set out site from the Indian Manas site. Use the many links to find the aspect of British India you need.
  • Key Landmarks in the Indian Freedom Struggle Detailed description of main steps to Independence. Article from South Asian History  §
  • Timeline with basic but detailed linked explanations of the key events in Indian steps to independence  §
  • The 2-Nation Theory and Partition This (not impartial) article concludes: "In hindsight, it is clear that partition was largely a colonial trick: The Muslim League had never proved its strength in any truly democratic vote. The British knew that the Congress was under great pressure to gain independence quickly. They exploited the mood of impatience and weariness in the Congress to accept partition even when it wasn't what the masses of the Indian sub-continent had really wished for". Article from South Asian History  §
Quit India Movement
Personalities
 
  • Mohandas Gandhi Time 100 article (runner up!!)
  • Mahatma.com Well presented site. Bio, timeline, key speeches, photos and more.
  • MKGandi.org a little untidy but contains much of value: articles, speeches, writings, photos. A good "one-stop" on the man.
  • Mahatma Gandhi Album A detailed site offering everything from quotes and cartoons to book excerpts and an Ask Gandhi section.
  • Gandhi Virtual Ashram Multimedia, photos, quotes, timelines and a mailing list in this online shrine to the Mahatma
  • GandhiServe Foundation Full site on Mahatma Gandhi from Germany, with links to education, human rights, MK Gandhi, nonviolence and more. Excellent Top 100 photo page!

Documents

  • Indian Nationalism Documents from the Internet Indian History Sourcebook
  • Indian Home Rule (1909) In this imaginary dialogue, Gandhi is replying to the question of an interviewer as to how he would address "extremists" seeking independence from Britain.
  • Mohandas. K. Gandhi and his assasin, Nathuram Godse Document based site that focuses on the assassination. Has many links to local press at the time, some dead, most still accessible.  §


casahistoria home                   visit caféhistoria for updates and current topic newsClick me and go to the café!





5. Decolonisation in Africa

go to top of page


 

Africa & Decolonisation Go to separate casahistoria site



 


Mesopotamia/Iraq

Mesopotamia/Iraq Go to the casahistoria  site. Sections on:
19th c: Ottoman collapse; British Mandate, 1918-32; British invasion, WW2; The Oil factor; British-US rivalry, & cooperation 1918-73; Independence & continued intervention; Iraq, Hussein, the West & War (links to a separate page).

 

 


Palestine Mandate

go to the casahistoria Palestine Mandate site. Sections on: 
World War 1, Palestine & Origins of Mandate; The Palestine Mandate; Living under the Mandate; The British in Palestine; The End of the Mandate; Zionism; Jewish immigration; Land Question; Zionist resistance to British & growing violence; Failure of the Mandate; Documents & Key Resources
 




casahistoria home                visit caféhistoriaa> for updates and current topic newsClick me and go to the café!





8. Aftermath

go to top of page

Immigration from the old empires to Europe



casahistoria home                            visit caféhistoria for updates and current topic newsClick me and go to the café!





the casahistoria imperialism core sites:
go to top of page


  Imperialism home
  British Imperialism
  USA & Japan, the latecomers
  The native experience   
  The anti colonialists 
  European Emigration 
  Decolonisation






casahistoria home                  visit caféhistoria for updates and current topic newsClick me and go to the café!



  v14.01



  café historia - our news site | who we are | site map | terms | cookies policy | image use | contact us | online visitor map