cromwell & the protectorate: revision pointers for 1653-58   

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Hopefully these will give you a little extra help - but remember the best help of all is your full set of notes and articles. These are just suggestions to help give you a change.....
 
1. General Admin sheets....
2. Need to refresh the outline of events? Unit
     Sections by Chronology as we studied them
1. Instrument of Govt
2. 1st Protectorate Parl
3. Major Generals
4. Offer of the Crown
3. Religious background
4. The man himself - Cromwell: assessments
5. Bios of key figures
6. (b) Answer Plans by Theme:
Why Protectorate failed
Cromwell & Religion
Role of Army
 
 
Revision Home
 
 
Want even more?
 
 Our sites on the civil war period (1630-1660):
 
  Background to civil war period
  People of the civil war
  Military Events
  Beliefs & ideas
  The Commonwealth & Protectorate
  The 1660 Restoration Settlement
 
  Site Map - Civil War period (1630-60)       

        Revision, 1646-52

       
 
 

see what we are reading! 


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1. Need to refresh on the outline of events?      go to top of page
 
indicates a revision exercise from the English  Edexcel examination board. Note these are the old (pre 2010) syllabus and are intended to help you solely with your understanding of Cromwell. They do not prepare you for 2010 onwards question types.
 
 
 
Sections by Chronology
 
 A.  Instrument of Government

revision task from 2000
(a) Using sources & OK: what do you consider to be Cromwell’s main political & religious aims as Lord Protector?
Click to look at a possible plan and compare with your own!!!

 

 B.  First Protectorate Parliament


 C.  Major Generals

  • Penruddock's Uprising Outline from BCW&C detailing the uprising that helped lead to the MG's
  • Western Design from BCW&C
  • Rule of the Major Generals Outline from BCW&C. However the main attraction is the specific information provided on each individual major general. See the list of links to bio's of leading MG's at the foot of the page. Good, useful OK support!!
 

revision task from 2005
(a) In what ways did Cr’s religious priorities influence his political decision-making? Explain using Sources & OK.
  Click to look at a possible plan and compare with your own!!!



 D. Offer of the Crown

revision task from 2002
(a) Sources 2,3 & 5 & OK. Explain what considerations influenced Cromwell’s decision to reject the Crown in 1657? 
  Click to look at a possible plan and compare with your own!!!

 

 

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3. Religious backgroundgo to top of page

 

 

 

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4. Cromwell - the man himself!go to top of page

 

Sick of reading about Cromwell? Try these:

  • Video sessions by Harvards Prof Kishlansky (times in brackets)
 
1. Professor Kishlansky's Introduction to Cromwell (2:07)
2. Cromwell's Early Life and Conversion Experience (7:21)
3. Military Genius and Member of Parliament (6:36)
4. Civil War Leader (6:10)
5. Cromwell's Rise to Power During the War (6:39)
6. Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector (8:15)
7. Denouncing of Cromwell and the Army (9:29)
8. Cromwell's Final Years (5:56)
 
  • Revision podcast by Prof Barry Coward, Emeritus Professor of History, Birkbeck:

  Was the Cromwellian Protectorate a military dictatorship? Useful Podcast lecture  which discusses the nature of the leadership of Britain's most controversial Head of State. (For just the first half when the focus is on the military dictatorship aspect click here)  
 
 
 
Cromwell: recent views & assessments
 
       Well indexed for easy use. Recommended!
Also worth a read:
  • Oliver Cromwell Extract from the article by Richard Wilkinson in History Review March 1997
  • Assessment Succinct overall assessment by Prof Morrill on his BBC site.
  • Cromwell: Hero or Villain? Item from BBC News site discusses points raised in the 1999 "Cromwell: Warts and All" exhibition at the Museum of London
  • Contentious Cromwell From the Channel 4 history website, examination of Oliver Cromwell's role during and after the Civil Wars.  §
  • Puritan Made Dr Rachel Gibbons, lecturer at the Open University examines the political legacy of Cromwell
 
and viewed by contemporaries:

 

 

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5. Bios of key figures go to top of page

 

Good to give you a different angle when you are fed up of reading your notes. Helps the OK to stick!
 For key women of the period go here

 

 

 

 

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6. (b) Answer Plans by Themego to top of page

 

 A.  Why Protectorate failed
 
Key theme of Question: Why did the Protectorate fail?
Rough outline from OK of main points:
 
  1. Problems with I of G
    Army role unclear
    Parl position unclear
    Overpowering role of Cr as Protector
2. Limited success of Heal & Settle
3. Impact of Godly change
4. Failure to involve Landed families
 
 

revision task from June 2002:
(b) All Sources & OK How far do you agree that the failure to reach a lasting political settlement 1653-58 was due to the Protectorate’s “fatal internal contradictions”?
Click to look at a possible plan and compare with your own!!!
 
 
 
 B.  Cromwell & Religion
Key theme of Question: How Cromwell wanted to introduce godly rule.
Rough outline from OK of main points:
 
  1. Use of army
     Create stability in country (purge Rump; Scotland/Ireland; give backing to protector    
         when needs to close Parl; protect against risings like Penruddocks)
     MG’s to enforce Godliness
2. Use of Parl
    Cr hoped for an effective Parl to provide checks & balances & heal and settle to
    provide religious reform
3. Use of Ordinance to create Godly environment
    Early religion ordinances before 1stPP; Instructions to MG’s
4. Personal example of leaders:
    Closure of corrupt Parls and MP’s unwilling to do godly work: Rump/Barebones/1st &
       2nd PP’s. Cr?
 
 


revision task from June 2003:

(b) Using all five sources and your own knowledge, how far do you agree with the author
     of Source 4 that in the years 1653-58 the Army was Cromwell’s “only hope of
     combining godly rule with godly liberty” ?
Click to look at a possible plan and compare with your own!!!
 
 
 
 C.  Role of Army
 
Key theme of Question:  Role of army in Protectorate.
Rough outline from OK of main points:
 
  Positive role in Protectorate
  1. = basis for political settlement (Lambert/ Council Grandeees)
  2. Internal security (eg Penruddocks)
  3. External security (eg Ireland/Scotland controlled; Stuart return prevented)
  4. Army used to enforce unpopular policy: MG’s & godly change
  5. Some MG’s begin to work with landed groups; do positive work in their regions.

Negative role
  1. Army itself = obstacle to a long term political settlement
    a. Probs with funding create friction with Parl (esp 1stPP)
    b. Resistance to Humble Petition
    c. Post Oliver involvement
 2. Dislike of Army leads to general unpopularity of regime:
    a. Disliked by MP’s: Standing Army requires taxation = unpopular with MP’s & taxpayers;
        constant threat to their position by fact that they empower Cr to be able to close
        them.
    b. MG’s & rel change
    c. Taxation remains high to pay for army
Ie army is an obstacle to heal & settle, but provide stability for Cr to conduct his main interest, rel change.
 
 
 

revision task from 2000 Specimen
 (b) "A dictatorship of the generals naked & unashamed". Using your own knowledge
      and the  evidence of these sources, explain how far you would agree with this
      interpretation of government during the Protectorate.  
      Click to look at a possible plan and compare with your own!!!
 
 
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