Spain - A Country Study Introductory series of (sometimes
very concise) articles. US Library of Congress. Good place to
start for an overview in English. Links to key sections:
Spanish Civil War Period Timeline Basic, but all the better
and clearer for that. From George Mason University.
Chronology Produced by the Univ of Durham Hispanic dept.
Introduction to the Spanish Civil War Basic details,
curriculum guides, and syllabi for students and teachers. From
Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives.
- An illustrated diary of the war Very full, complete with
calendar, pictures, comments and background information. From
the now defunct (republican) La Cucaracha site but made
available by the Wayback archive. §
The Count of Barcelona The Life of Don Juan, Infante of
Spain (1913-1993) By Art Beéche. Royalist article, but
interesting for its views on the Franco succession issue. §
Spain, 1931-36, From Monarchy to Civil War, an Eye-Witness
account Online book by Ronald Hilton, Professor Emeritus,
Stanford University. The Historical Text Archive.
A short background history of events leading up to the
Spanish Civil War. from the Imperial War Museum, London.
of Spain and Portugal, by Stanley G. Payne (1973 University
of Wisconsin) If you want something meatier (but remember it's
vintage) try these chapters. Set out with clear subheadings,
many maps, stats....
Unrest before 1936
2. The War
There are many left wing/anarchist links and sites to the
period. These links try to provide a broad a spectrum as possible.
Nationalist sites are very rare - at least in English.
The Spanish Civil War - Another excellent Spartacus site.
Access to events, battles, individuals, all logically set out. A
one-stopper for the civil war.
Spain's Civil War From the March of Time site. Uses brief
narrative and audio/newsreel extracts to show the progress of
of the Civil War. Shows the general progress of the war clearly.
Spanish Civil War 1936-39 from
Events Data site
Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939 from A History of Spain &
Portugal by SG Payne, Library of Iberian Resources Online/
University of Central Arkansas. Outline in textbook format.
Spanish Civil War Directory An interesting site, looking at
links to Civil War sites in the many languages of Europe.
The front page and the “essential” websites page are in English
and Spanish, the rest only in Spanish. These pages have been
elaborated in the framework of the European Virtual School
History Department's project "Europe and the Spanish Civil War"
to chronicle the various European responses to the Spanish War
of the 1936-39.
Spanish Civil War Extensive (and often esoteric) articles
from the left wing site on aspects of the Republican war
The Anarchist Revolution in Spain account by Cyril Connolly
in the New Statesman or 21st November 1936 of the anarchist
revolution during the Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War: An Analysis A military analysis of
the Civil War from a 2003 paper to the US National War College
using the theories of Clausewitz and Sun Tzu..... By Adam Namm
Impact on the land
Impact in the cities
Women & Children
Los niños de
la guerra (the children of the war) Lushly produced site,
preserves the memories of Spaniards who were children during the
war. Has Republican posters focusing on children and a short
essay by Teresa Férriz on the use of such posters.
Women and Images of Women in the Spanish Civil War Academic
article by Frances Lannon, "Women and Images of Women in the
Spanish Civil War", Transactions of the Royal Historical
Society, 1 (1991)
De toda la vida / All their lives The story of Spanish women
in the progressive labour movement in 1936 and beyond. In
Spanish with English subtitles.
4. Nationalist Combatants
Foreign Nationalist Support
Nationalist Veteran Julian Laplaza Perez was a
15-year-old soldier for the Nationalist side in the Spanish
Civil War. More than 70 years later, Laplaza tells his reason
and experience fighting against the Republic in the war. The
conflicts Laplaza lived through tell a story of a boy's first
hand experience with the war. Univ of Texas.
Franco and the Nationalists Video of interviews with
Nationalists/Falangists. Looks at why the right grew in support.
Commentary is relatively objective but has sudden end - need to
conyinue by clicking on the next episode...
Spanish Civil War: 75 Years Later Article
shows why support was present for Nationalists amongst Spanish
Catholics By Victor Gaetan of Catholic Education
Fascists and Catholics and General Franco
Concise but useful 2011 review of a Sid Lowe article examining
the right in the years leading up to the Spanish Civil War,
providing a major reinterpretation of the basis of Spanish
The Spanish Civil War 1936 - 39 Looks at the armoured
weapons used by the Nationalists but does write of the lack of
images of Nationalist supporters.
España es mi canción: Nationalist songs from the civil war,
collected by the Frente de Juventudes
Armed Tourists A Bare Bones Guide to Foreign Volunteers in
the Nationalist Army Crusading Catholics,
foreign Fascists, and Muslims with a grudge. Christopher
Othen looks at the right-wing version of the International
Brigades and the subject of his first book: the foreign
volunteers who fought for General Franco. Clearly
presented in Q & A format. Worthwhile.
The Other Volunteers 2006 BBC Article
about the foreign volunteers who fought for Franco.
By Judith Keene Author, "Fighting for Franco". With images.
American Catholics and the Spanish Civil War Lengthy and
interesting article by Donald Prudlo looks at the different -
and increasingly positive - attitude of US Catholics to Franco
and his supporters.
5. Republican Combatants
A Day Mournful and Overcast... An account of the Iron Column.
A personal account of a liberated prisoner’s experience as a
fighter during the Spanish Civil War and Revolution of 1936-9 in
the anarchist militia unit called the Iron Column prior to its
incorporation into the Communist-run Republican army
Emma Goldman papers. Goldman was a sixty-seven years old
anarchist when the Spanish Civil War erupted in July of 1936. It
was less than a month after the tragic suicide of Alexander
Berkman, her closest comrade and "chum of a life-time." The
promise of an anarchist revolution in Spain revived Goldman's
broken spirit. Despite her advanced age, Emma hurled herself
into the Spanish cause with an enthusiasm reminiscent of her
early activist years in America. This exhibition shows her
papers and writings in facsimile as well as in text.
archives of Albert & Vera Weisbord. Essays by these leading
Communist Radicals of the 1930's. Point of note: be patient,
download is slow. Articles are contemporary to the war and
Spanish Civil War fighters look back BBC item looks at the
tragic story of those Republicans and their family who fled to
france at the end of the civil war. 2003
Altavoz del Frente
Republican Songs from the war on the website Canciones
republicanas de la guerra civil española. (See also Music
Anarchism in the Spanish Revolution of 1936 - Spanish Civil War
A very committed site, but also very detailed and worthwhile.
Made up of essays, many written by well known historians, and
respected participants. Set out thematically and comprehensively
and includes much on background. §
Final hours of Spanish poet Federico García Lorca revealed
Historian Miguel Caballero Pérez claims to know who made up
Franco's execution squad and where they buried the poet during
Spain's civil war. 2011 Guardian item by Giles Tremlett.
Amigas de Brigadas Internacionales Site of the Spanish
"Friends of the International Brigade" This link is to the
obituary page which carries brief notices on individual members
recently passed away which contain useful links to fuller
obituaries in the world press. These are clear to see even if
you are relying on Google to translate.
International Volunteers in the POUM Militias Left wing
article written by Andy Durgan, historical consultant for the
Ken Loach film Land and Freedom, the article also contains a
list of international volunteers in the POUM militia.
Volunteers In The British Battalion In The Spanish Civil War
Useful site with potted histories of key stages of wr where
British volunteers were involved, links to other AV and
internet resources as well as books
Spanish Civil War Interviews: The UK Guardian has
interviewed 23 of the 40 survivors. Here are their accounts.
Ian Aitken introduces our interviews with the last
survivors. Pictures by Eamonn McCabe. Very good piece of
documentation. See also the accompanying
Last of the brigade.
Dreams and Nightmares In 1976 the International Brigade
Association celebrated its 40th Anniversary Reunion.
In response to this event, the Sound Archive of the Imperial
War Museum began an oral history project on the Spanish
Civil War (1936-1939). Also:
Listen to oral extracts from some of the interviews with
International Brigade veterans. The Spanish Civil War
sound collection is largely made up of interviews with
British people who served with the International Brigades.
There are also recordings of medical aid workers,
non-British volunteers, Spanish soldiers and Spanish
civilians and refugees. The collection contains very few
interviews with soldiers who fought with Franco's forces.
Appeals for Nationalist veterans have yet to yield a
Interview with Bosco Jones, International Brigader and
anti-Fascist Street Activist in East London during the
1930's. Part 2 is
Spain 1936 The Forgotten War Remembered. With emphasis
on the Canadian participation in the war. Original article
written by Eugene W. Plawiuk, for the 60th Anniversary of
the Spanish Civil War.
The Foreign Legion of the Revolution Left wing item on
the 250 Germans that were engaged on the side of the CNT-FAI
as propagandists, journalists or as armed fighters in the
- Ireland and
the Spanish Civil War Collects articles and research on
Irish involvement in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-39. Use the
index on this page to find items of interest.
Connolly Column Named after the trade unionist and rebel
James Connolly, the Connolly Column was the division of
Irish Anti Fascists who fought as part of the 15th
International Brigade in what is commonly referred to as the
civil war/revolution in Spain 1936-39. This is their
African Americans in the Spanish Civil War Good
resources, especially to individual volunteers. From Abraham
Lincoln Brigade Archives.
The Spanish Civil War Very good site by Cary Nelson of
the University of Illinois. Includes an overview of the war,
a photo essay, a chronology, posters, flags, letters by
American volunteers, poems, as well as articles and speeches
by George Orwell, La Pasionaria, Ernest Hemingway, Bernard
Knox and Tony Hendra.
A soldier returns - letter from an American fighter in the
Durruti Column A letter from an American trade unionist
and member of the revolutionary union the Industrial Workers
of the World (IWW) about his experiences as a fighter in the
Spanish Civil War in the International section of the
anarchist Durruti Column. Published in the paper of the
American IWW's paper, One Big Union Monthly in 1937.
Don Henry and the Civil War an interesting look at the
volunteers of the International brigade. This is the story
of the US university student, Don Henry, his motivations and
involvement in the conflict. Set out as a resource with
background materials for teachers
The Kid from Hoboken An Autobiography by Bill Bailey.
Edited by Lynn Damme. Tells the story of Bill bailey, a
recruit to the International Brigades
- The Abraham Lincoln
Brigade Archives (ALBA) Very worthwhile site Founded in
1979 by the veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, ALBA is
an educational humanitarian organization devoted to the
preservation and dissemination of the history of the North
American role in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and its
aftermath. Includes visual exhibitions such as:
The Aura of the Cause a black and white photographic
show, the majority of photos taken by International
Brigade volunteers themselves
Reaction of Foreign Governments
Visual & literary materials
Photos & Drawings
- Guernica Linked to a PBS TV series this is a thorough and
well produced site looking at painting and its historical
background & significance. Good images of details from the
painting. Comes also with teaching notes.
Pablo Picasso - From The Spanish Civil War To Vietnam Useful
site looks at the development of the mural and its context
within Picasso's portrayal of war. A Study Guides on War and Art
originally prepared for a course entitled "Responses to War: An
Intellectual and Cultural History" given at The University of
Adelaide 1989 -99
Guernica Extract from The Shock of the New, Art and the
Century of Change, by art critic Robert Hughes.
- Guernica, 1937;
Picasso's Secret Guernica. Three interesting pieces from
Spain For the aftermath and the implications
today of the civil war go to
this casahistoria site