decolonization: links to 20th century decolonisation & the end of the formal european empires in africa  

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   Dr. Kwame Francis Nwia Kofie Nkrumah became the first President of Ghana after independence from colonial rule from Britain, serving until the 24th of February 1966, when he was removed from power in a coup d'etat by members of the Ghana Army casahistoria - web site for students of modern history!







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Browse down the page or just click one of these sections.... 
 
 1. General Sites & Articles
 2. Decolonisation in sub-Saharan Africa
West Africa | Congo | East Africa
Portuguese Africa 
 3. Decolonisation in North Africa
Suez & Egypt | Algeria
Iraq
 4. Decolonisation in the Middle East
 

  Decolonisation home

 





 Other casahistoria imperialism core sites:
 
  Imperialism home
  British Imperialism
  USA & Japan, the latecomers
 
 The native experience   
  The anti colonialists 
 
European Emigration
 
  Site Map - Imperialism microsite

 

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casahistoria is recommended by many sites including:
   


 

 

  
  



Decolonisation Go to the casahistoria decolonisation home site for: 

 




1. General articles and sites

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  Imperialism Go to the casahistoria imperialism home site for sections on the Theory & Practice of imperialism; Continental European Imperialism; The European experience in Africa; Gunboat Diplomacy.

 

Documents
  • "Wind of Change" speech. Made by Harold Macmillan to the South African Parliament in 1960. Article in About.com by Alistair Boddy-Evans. Good links but try and ignore all the ads and other boxes!!
    • Read also Henrik Verwoerd's response: Prime Minister Henrik Verwoerd responded to Harold Macmillan's "Wind of Change" speech by pushing forward the rights of white men in Africa and was met with applause from the members of South Africa's Parliament.
 
 
 


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2. Decolonisation in sub-Saharan Africa

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Given the number of colonies obtaining independence, the following links are offered as a starter to further study only:
 
 
 
 
West Africa

 

        Gold Coast (Ghana)

         Nigeria

Congo East Africa

        Tanganyika (Tanzania)
  • Sakuma Home Page Home page of the Sakuma Museum in Kisesa, Tanzania. Narratives and photographs focus on the culture and history of Tanzania which remains despite colonisation. The history of the museum section tells the story of how the traditions were "rediscoverered"
       Kenya
  • Case Study : Kenya Part of the BBC Story of Africa site Good outline introduction with links to context in general
  • Kenya: Imperialism and decolonisation detailed casahistoria netguide article (19 pages) based on a variety of web sources. For more casahistoria netguide revision go to IB/Alevel/K12 revision in the young casahistoria section.
  • Timeline: Mau Mau Rebellion By Alistair Boddy-Evans, for About.com
  • The Mau Mau Movement Concise, 1986 Kenyan educational outline.    §
  • Histories of Kenya's Mau Mau uprising: How not to run an empire. Very good review article in The economist (Dec 29th 2004) which provides a clear examination of the unilateral actions of Britain during the Mau Mau period. Uses reviews of Histories of the Hanged: The Dirty War in Kenya and the End of Empire By David Anderson and Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of the End of Empire in Kenya By Caroline Elkins to do this.
  • The Mau Mau Rebellion BBC audio report (about 10mins). Did Britain use torture in 1950s Kenya? British authorities are accused of widespread repression leading to the deaths of tens of thousands of detainees. Discussion with Harvard history professor, Caroline Elkins, author of Britain's Gulag.
  • Jomo Kenyatta Information on the Kenyan Constitution, history and geography. Produced by R.C. Bowen.  §
  • Thomas Joseph Mboya Bio of Kenyan trade unionist and statesman, assassinated six years into independence By Alistair Boddy-Evans, About.com

 

        Northern Rhodesia (Zambia)
  • Dr. Kenneth D. Kaunda Epic Book commercial listings site, but has links to brief reviews and articles as well as images. Unfortunately extracts are not always credited. Can be slow to load. Be patient!  §
  • Zambia 40 years after independence, A Comparative Analysis of Economic Development During Colonial Office Rule (1924 – 1964) and Since Independence (1964 – 2004). Address by Chairman, National Economic Advisory Council of Zambia,At the Royal Commonwealth Society, 2004. Useful piece of comparative analysis which is relatively rare.    §

  

        Nyasaland (Malawi)
  • Ngwazi Dr. H. Kamuzu Banda Epic Book commercial listings site, but has links to brief reviews and articles as well as images. Unfortunately extracts are not always credited. Can be slow to load. Be patient!  §

Portuguese Africa



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3. Decolonisation in North Africa

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  Imperialism Go to the casahistoria imperialism home site for sections on the Theory & Practice of imperialism; Continental European Imperialism; The European experience in Africa; Gunboat Diplomacy.

 

  • Arab Nationalism Lecture which gives a brief, but valuable overview of rise of Arab nationalism in north Africa and the middle east to 1990. By Professor Gerhard Rempel, Western New England College.
Suez & Egypt, 1956
Algeria


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4. Decolonisation the Middle East 

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Mesopotamia/Iraq

Go to the casahistoria Mesopotamia/Iraq site. Sections on:
19th c: Ottoman collapse; British Mandate, 1918-32; British invasion, WW2; The Oil factor; British-US rivalry, & cooperation 1918-73; Independence & continued intervention; Iraq, Hussein, the West & War (links to a separate page).

 


Palestine Mandate
Go to the casahistoria Palestine Mandate site. Sections on: 
World War 1, Palestine & Origins of Mandate; The Palestine Mandate; Living under the Mandate; The British in Palestine; The End of the Mandate; Zionism; Jewish immigration; Land Question; Zionist resistance to British & growing violence; Failure of the Mandate; Documents & Key Resources
 




 



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the casahistoria imperialism core sites:
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  Imperialism home
  British Imperialism
  USA & Japan, the latecomers
  The native experience   
  The anti colonialists 
  European Emigration 
  Decolonisation







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