Origins of the Conflict. Go to this casahistoria site:
Malvinas Islas Malvinas. The names in Spanish
Map on the Official Falklands Website A useful map for the
English names on the islands
Falklands/Malvinas from the CIA World Handbook
Falklands War Also see the Spanish (more limited) version:
de las Malvinas from Wikipedia. Two excellent, detailed and
well cross-referenced articles. Very thorough
Islas Malvinas. Site of the Argentine infantry (infanteria
ejercito). Useful site from the official web of the argentine
army. Sections on regiments involved, weapons, campaigns and
awards. Unfortunately this is no longer available anywhere on
the military site. This is the archived Wayback copy.
Guerra de Malvinas A very full
narrative by Marcial Sorazabal (93 pages) covering events of the
war, causes and conclusions. Pictures and diagrams.
Intriguing final sections on the reaction to war. The
bibliography used is interesting. By the same author, (but not a
Guerra de Malvinas issued by Monografias.com a web
site hosting (mainly student) essays
- BBC: despite the similarity of the first two titles, each
has different articles. both are worth looking at for
background, interviews and analysis.
Chronology produced in 1998 when Menem visited the UK.
Contains timeline and links to audio & video reports.
On This Day: 1982: Argentina invades Falklands BBC site to
the day of the invasion. AV reports from BBC TV.
The Battle of the Falkland's War. Very Good. Placed on the
web, this version of the book is full & well detailed (maps,
photos and details are very thorough and clearly set out).
British published but it heads the list of recommended
British-published books, described as "a very useful and
detailed guide to the day-by-day development of the war" in the
Argentine Army journal "Soldados", April 2000 edition.
Falklands Conflict Produced by Navy News, newspaper of the
Royal navy. Comprehensive, well produced
Falklands (Islas Malvinas) War 1982 - A site with very
British views, focused from the British soldiers point of view.
This is part of a site looking at all Britain´s military and
imperial conflicts up to the present time. Includes a
message board for veterans.
- Psyop Of The
Falkland Islands War Interesting site looks at the
propaganda and psychological war fought by both sides. Good
images of materials used on both sides.
photographs of key participants in the conflict. Comprehensive.
From Falklands Conflict site
A Day in the Life of Galtieri by Uki Goñi - 1996 article
Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires is home to soccer ace Diego
Maradona, but just a few streets away, scarcely a head turned
when a dictator once cheered by millions went out to do his
shopping. Few generals managed to fade away as quietly as
Leopoldo Galtieri. §
Galtieri obituary article from the UK Guardian upon his
death by Alex Bellos, South America correspondent, January 13,
Obituary of a criminal from Russia' Pravda... another
Mensaje del Presidente Galtieri Galtieri anuncia la
recuperación de las Islas Malvinas : listen to the speech -the
third on the page. (Sometimes however it can be offline -
exceeds its visitor limits?)
brief video from the balcony of the Casa Rosada
Patriotism has Worked its Old Magic Guardian Unlimited
special report on the Thatcher era, written in November 2000, 10
years after her resignation. This article takes a damning look
at her role in the Falklands War.
Margaret Thatcher Biography Concise but useful, with an
(surprising?) attempt at balance from the The Margaret Thatcher
"Rejoice" Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Defence
Secretary John Nott deliver statement describing successful
landing of British troops on South Georgia during Falklands
conflict, Thatcher refuses to answer questions from press,
telling them to "rejoice", Downing Street; 25 Apr 82
3. The military
role of submarine warfare
Seapower: Lessons of the Falkland Islands War Edward B.
Zellem; Albert L. St Clair (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and
Staff College 1999. Motives, key assumptions, military strategy,
and tactics of Great Britain and Argentina discussed within the
context of the Clausewitzian dictum that "war is the
continuation of politics by other means."
on the Royal Navy
- Given little emphasis at the time or since, the role &
involvement of the Royal Navy (nuclear) submarine fleet was
perhaps the most crucial element in ensuring eventual UK
success. These links give some indication of this:
Beyond the General Belgrano and Sheffield: Lessons in
Undersea and Surface Warfare from the Falkland Islands
Conflict Very useful (and easy to read) paper argues
that the nuclear submarine was the vital weapon. The
Belgrano sinking & the now apparent UK underwater naval
blockade kept the Argentine Navy in port and ensured air
attacks would be at extreme range. Also argues that the
Argentines essentially made the same mistake that the
Japanese had in World War II: by attacking military vessels
rather than the slower-moving, more poorly-defended
logistics ships that supplied them, they failed to halt the
British fleet. Stanford Univ research paper
"Air Power Lessons," Military Lessons of the Falkland Islands
War: Views from the United States, 1984 Extract from the
book by Earl Tilford §
Air War in the Falklands Grand miscalculations, unknown
odds, miserable weather, vast distances—and unlikely
adversaries. Detailed history item by by Carl Posey for Air &
Space Magazine, 2002
Argentine Air Forces In The Falklands War Video of main
footage of Argentine Airforce during the war.
1982 malvinas : la guerra desde el aire (Falklands Air War).
Two lengthy (10 mins each) video extracts from the latin
american version of the History Channel
Exocet Despite coming from the Britain's Small wars site
this is an Argentine version of the air war. Clearly written and
concise history of the airwar by Diego Zampini.
Argentine Airpower in the Falklands War: An Operational View
Balanced analysis of the Argentine Airforce role in the war
outlining its impressive competence and courage at the
operational and tactical levels of war. Dr. James S. Corum,
Professor of comparative military studies, Maxwell AFB, Alabama
Offensive Air Operations of The Falklands War Major Walter
F. DeHoust, 2 April 1984, Marine Corps Command and Staff College
Marine Corps Development and Education Command. A seminar paper
and layout is spartan, but very detailed.
RAF bombing of the islands
of both sides. Detailed listings
Argentina Naval Aviation Excellent listing with images and
details from Malvinas Online
Falklands War Air Forces from Wikipedia. Excellent detail
and cross referencing
La Fuerza Aérea Argentina en Malvinas Very detailed, and
well presented site produced by la Fuerza Aérea Argentina.
Excellent links to comparative UK/Argentine sources give this
considerable balance as a resource
The New Hawks of the Argentine Air Force Article By Cees-Jan
van der Ende, Juan Carlos Cicalesi and Santiago Rivason on the
Skyhawks used by the Argentina airforce. (Unfortunately the
Latin American Aviation Historical Society site is
currently unavailable. This is the Wayback archive version). §
The Torpedo Armed Pucar
By Atilio Marino, Javier Mosquera & Vladimiro Cettolo. The
South Atlantic conflict caused the Argentinean Armed Forces to
face their own internal limitations and failures in warfare.
This tells how the Pucaro became a torpedo bomber...
from Falklands Conflict Site (includes film of Pucara close
support attack aircraft; Sea Harriers landing on HMS
Invincible; Two Mirage take off from an Argentine airbase)
Alley: San Carlos Bay
Black Buck detailed & illustrated account of V Bomber
planning and the airfield raids from RAF
Bombers RAF teaching sequence of the Black Buck V bomber
raids on Stanley. Good map visuals
The tin triangle strikes again Review of an account of the
mission to destroy the Argentine-held airstrip at Stanley. It
was, and remains, the longest range air attack in history. The
task was simple. The means by which it was achieved, was
mind-bogglingly complex, sometimes chaotic, occasionally
And on the islands
In the Homeland Day By Diego Zampini Argentine account of
events on May 25th
"Allee der Bomben" Austrian site, in German, very well set
out on the events of the San Carlos landings
Argentine Jet Fighter Pilot Pablo Carballo War exploits
Comodoro Pablo Marcos Rafael Carballo, who in '82 was commanding
officer of Argentinean Grupo 5 de Caza, responsible for attacks
inflicted in the Task Force, such as HMS Coventry and the
Fitzroy attack. Useful but not too clearly set out..
The Birth of Bomb Alley
By Juan Carlos Cicalesi & Santiago Rivas. Recounts the bombing
of the San Carlos landing forces.
4. The International Situation
Diplomacy of the war
Allies and enemies
Chile and support for Britain General Fernando Matthei, ex-
Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force of Chile and member of the
Military junta between 1977 and 1989, reveals (July 1999) to the
Santiago paper Tercera how Chile gave support to the UK.
Colaboracion de Chile con Gran Bretana en Malvinas Gives an
insight into the Chilean motivation in supporting the UK - and
their fear that the Malvinas occupation was Galtieri's first
step in further expansion. It is also interesting in the light
of recent press releases about the monies still being paid to
Pinochet by the British Government. (See next item)
US banking records show links between arms firm and ex-dictator
continued until last year from the London Guardian, Sept
Chile was next target after Falklands Brigadier Basilio Lami
Dozo, chief of the Argentine Air Force at the time, admits
Galtieri had plans to attack Chile following the invasion and
recovery of the Falklands/Malvinas Islands in 1982. 2009 article
Here Today, Gone Tomorrow Revelations of the conduct of the
1982 War are contained in a book by the British Defence
Secretary at the time, Sir John Nott. He tells his version
for the first time of how British agents denied Argentina
supplies of the feared Exocet missile, and how France advised
Britain on ways to counter the missiles and of of the tensions
in Margaret Thatcher's War Cabinet, as well as his feud with the
head of the Royal Navy
Crucial Falklands role played by US missiles Guardian
article explains in 2002 how Thatcher would have lost the
Falklands war in 1982 if America had failed to provide crucial
missiles to bolster British air defences.
Twenty Years On: The nature of friendship: Britain, America and
Argentina during the Falklands War Essay from Antiwar.com
looking back at the relationships during the war
Falklands war almost spread to Gibraltar UK Guardian, July
2004: One of the Argentinian admirals who sent his country to
war with Britain over the Falkland islands has admitted that he
dispatched a team of saboteurs to sink a Royal Navy ship in
El apostadero Naval Malvinas en Internet Página desarrollada
por un veterano de la guerra, donde se brinda información sobre
el Apostadero Naval Malvinas. Cuenta con listados de veteranos
de la Armada Argentina y de beneficios sociales diversos para
los mismos. Posee una sección de documentos, así como un
apartado histórico, aún en construcción. Site designed by
Argentine naval veterans posted to the islands during the
The Birth of Bomb Alley By Juan Carlos Cicalesi & Santiago
Rivas. On the 21st of May of 1982 the British forces began to
disembark on San Carlos bay, beginning the ground operations of
the Malvinas/ Falklands war. On that day, the legend of the Bomb
Alley began. This is the Argentine point of view of what
happened on that day.
La Fuerza Aérea Argentina en Malvinas Argentine Air
Force: Extracts of descriptions of involvement in the war, from
sources world wide
Malvinas Air Combat Veteran Photo album, Personal photos of
R.Brown, Brigadier (RE) - retired- Argentine Air Force.
Cruces (Crossings: return & departure from the Falklands) by
Lorenz and Guembe Pagina/12 book review. The authors collected
unpublished photos of the war, several are in the article. These
are not battle images (although there are many previously
suppressed images of the dead) but are of the war's overall
impact on the soldiers.
Salir de los silencios (Click to read
"Leaving the Silence" in Google English) Article by Edgardo
Esteban ex Argentine soldier on the islands (Scriptwriter of the
recent Goya award winning film Iluminados por el fuego). Most
interestingly, he describes the process of
"demalvinización" following the Argentine defeat, in which the
war was to be "officially" forgotten.
La vida después de la muerte ("life after the death")
Multimedia Flash site from Clarin, Buenos Aires daily. Focusing
on the impact the war had on five relatives of troops killed in
the conflict. Best seen using broadband, it presents the five
personal stories against a background of images and sounds from
the period and includes "extras" such as images, chronologies,
key facts. Unfortunately it is only in Spanish and as it is a
Flash site, cannot be googled. There is an option to have
subtitles to each story which may help if you have a little
from Falklands Conflict pages. A useful group of recollections
Falkland Families radio programmes (Hear them in full) on
families/individuals affected by the conflict. Hint: the first
few minutes are usually the end of the previous programe or
trailers for another one. The programes usually start 2-3
minutes into the download.
Broadsword 82 The war seen from the crew members
of HMS Broadsword one of the Task Force ships. This is a very
comprehensive and well produced site. Good for the personal
- The Great White
Whale Memories and (very good) images of the Falklands War
from an engineer who served aboard the SS Canberra.
The view from Plymouth, England in 1982. This is a personal
account seen from the viewpoint of a civilian living in England
at the time of the war. (Plymouth, the city he lived is a major
Documents relevant to the Sovereignity of the Malvinas
Argentine Interior Ministry (From 18th century to the present).
- Unfortunately the Argentine Interior Ministry has seen fit
to remove all access to these documents from their education
site!! This link is to the Wayback machine archive where all
resources are still available. §
Documents (Documentos gráficos relacionados con la Guerra de
las Malvinas) from
El apostadero Naval Malvinas en Internet site. These are
images of the actual documents
Argentine Surrender, 14 June 1982
Articles from the Argentine & international press during the war
From Islas Malvinas Online. Good,
Newspaper front pages A selection of Argentine newspaper
front pages from key periods of the war. Interesting comparisons
can then be made with
type headlines of the UK Sun! (see also below in British
documents). From the Biblioteca Nacional of Argentina
GreenePeace An article from Página 12 (left of centre
newspaper published in Buenos Aires) which comments on a
sympathetic letter sent by Graham Greene, (author of the
Honorary Consul and Travels with my Aunt, both of which were set
in Argentina/Paraguay and based on his time in 1960's Argentina)
as a reply to an Argentine journalist during the war and
published at the time by Diario Clarín. Interesting, as it shows
how interpretations of comments can be given a different, and
exaggerated spin to further propaganda.
7. Audio Visual
YouTube has made video resources easily accessible. However, this is proving a mixed blessing as
YouTube is littered with reconstructed/game based videos of the
conflict, many of which are in fact counterfactual history or
rampantly jingoistic. Use the YouTube search engine with care!!
fotográfica Lavishly produced
The conflict in pictures Photo gallery
from The Guardian
74 dias en 10 imagenes BBC
- Useful audio visual extracts can be found on the BBC
Guide to the Conflict site
CNN Interactive Video Almanac - 1982 - Falklands war heats up -
May 1982 A series of videos to view from the CNN reports of
the time. Serie de cinco archivos de video en formato
it started, Argentine troops on the move, Jets bomb Argentine
John Nott announces British liberation of
South Georgia Nott, Thatcher and the call to
Argentina broadcasts demoralizing propaganda As Britain's
warships steamed to the South Atlantic to recapture the Falkland
Islands, this was broadcast to the approaching British sailors
and troops. Listen to the actual broadcast
Marcha de las Malvinas Argentine Malvinas
for more Malvinas songs & poems from the Argentine Education
Islas Malvinas Online Page of
very comprehensive set of audio extracts including:
- 01/04/1982: Message of Rex Hunt announcing the Argentine
- 02/04/1982: Presidente Galtieri announces the
occupation of the islands.
- 02/04/1982: Last transmission by the Falkland Islands
Broadcasting Station (FIBS), whilst being occupied by
Argentine troops. Includes a message from the British
governor, Rex Hunt, the Islanders.
- 02/04/1982: Nicanor Costa Méndez on the negotiations
concerning the future of the islands.
03/04/1982: Margaret Thatcher in the
Parliamentary debate on the Islands.
- 10/04/1982: Presidente Galtieri in the Plaza de Mayo
in front of 150.000 to impress US secretary of state, Haig.
- 28/04/1982: Brigade General Benjamín Menéndez assumes
control of the islands.
- 01/06/1982 : Radio broadcast of the South Atlantic,
British propaganda radio transmitting via Ascension to the
- 14/06/1982: Comandante of la Fuerza Aérea Argentina
Basilio Lami Dozo.
- 15/06/1982: Formal announcement of surrender to the
Why Britain Won
Emotional actor: Foreign Policy Decision Making An essay on
the cause of the war from a political science point of view.
Difficult, but looks at motivation in a more abstract way than
usual. By Coy, Patrick G. and Woehrle, Lynne
Brinkmanship decisions and hidden grief Nora Femenia,(1992)
Peace Fellow in a paper prepared under United States Institute
of Peace sponsorship looks at possible psychological motivations
for the actions of 1982.
The Rights and Wrongs of the Historic Claims to the Falkland
Islands From 'Tempest in a Teapot' by Reginald & Elliot,
1983 They pose the question 'Who really owns or should own the
Falklands?' and review the claims put forward by each side.
Political Blunders behind the Falklands War Another extract
from 'Tempest in a Teapot' by Reginald & Elliot, 1983 They
suggest, "The answers why war broke out lie in the
shortsightedness of the governments involved", the real causes
of the war being more to do with "governmental blunders" than
with historic claims
Why Britain Won the Falklands War From 'Tempest in a Teapot'
by Reginald & Elliot, 1983 On paper, Argentina appeared to have
a decided edge, in men, materiel, planes, position, and supply
lines. The Argentine advantage, however, was eroded away by the
British forces as the war developed, the experience of the
British military being a decisive factor
Falklands victory 'a close run thing' As both sides mark
20th anniversary, British commander talks of degree of luck By
Jeevan Vasagar and Alex Bellos, 2002. Guardian newspaper.
Falklands war: Thatcher won, but has Galtieri had the last
laugh? Guardian 2012 blog item By Michael White that shows
although commentators have been quick to point out how lucky
Margaret Thatcher was 30 years ago, she was also strong
Fall of the Military Junta Go to this casahistoria site
for extensive links to the background, role & collapse of the
military regime in Argentina
Mark Griffin's Falkland Island's Photographs taken with a
small 110 camera, and accompanied by a written commentary, these
show the islands just after the conflict.
Conscripts Return For 'Closure', 2004 Sympathetic article
from Penguin News about two proud Argentine conscripts who
return to the islands.
Return to the past An Argentine veteran returns to the
islands and describes the visit, 18 years after the war. In
English and in Spanish as Viaje
al pasado Un ex combatiente argentino, Miguel Savage,
relata su reencuentro con las islas, 18 años después de la
here to read the
article in google English) A contemplative, but ultimately
depressing article, critical of Argentine society in its its
reaction to the war written by León Rozitchner, Prof at
Univ of Buenos Aires
The Falklands test February 25 2002: What do those
born in 1982 know about the conflict? Did it affect their lives?
Natalie Alcoba Guardian reporter asks five Britons, an islander
and an Argentinian.
Our own Vietnam Guardian, February 25 2002: The US
looked to the conflict in south east Asia for its battle
stories. Britain had to go back to the two world wars. Then, in
1982, that all changed. Mark Lawson on how writers and directors
The conflict lives on Guardian 2002: How the battles
moved away from the islands and on to the pitch. By Simon Kuper
Profile: Ossie Ardiles (On April 3 1982, the day after the
invasion of the Falklands, Ossie Ardiles helped his team,
Tottenham Hotspur, beat Leicester City 2-0 in the FA Cup
semi-final at Villa Park. Two days later he left for Argentina.
The prospering Falklands Twenty years after Britain and
Argentina went to war over them, the Falklands are a breezy,
squid-rich paradise. The Economist Mar 28th 2002
Landmines in the Sand: The Falkland Islands The Falkland
Islands contain approximately 117 mine fields. Many of the mines
were remotely delivered. About 80 percent of these landmines are
hidden beneath sandy beaches and peat, which can shift a mine’s
position and make detection and removal very difficult.
guide to the islands The editor visited the islands in
summer 2008-9. His observations on the islands then and
travel hints for future visitors can be read here.
And Thirty Years later....
Unfortunately the 30th anniversary has been
removed from the veterans and siezed by special interest groups on
both sides to repeat past arguments, and sadly produce much bile and
a retreat to nationalism/populism, but no settlement - as one day
there will need to be. Below are a selection of items that may add
to the study/understanding of the initial conflict:
- 30 Years The anniversary site from Argentina's Clarin
newspaper. Has documentary items and also links to emerging news
stories. Most valuable of all is:
Cementerio De Darwin: Los Custodios De Malvinas (The
untold stories of the fallen). This interactive image of the
Argentine cemetery on the islands allows you to select a
fallen soldier and read their story. However click on the
Soldado desconocido tab to see the greatest impact of this
page - the way it shows the vast numbers of still unknown
Islands Set of items and links to both the original 1982
archive and 2012 emerging news stories. Especially useful is:
Thirty years on, the British still can't admit the truth about
the Falklands Felipe Fernandez-Armesto argues that an
opportunity for Britain to offload a valueless colony turned
into an obligation to hold on to it at any price as a
consequence of Argentine actions in the past and present.
Banderas para todos: Malvinas y nosotros/A Flag for
the Falklands and us (look at the second piece - it will
google translate) January 2012 item (ie before tension
escalated) from Argentina's Pagina 12 by Gustavo Arballo,
Professor of Public Law, National University of La Pampa,
outlines how the islands could, he argues, sympathetically
become part of Federal Argentina and enjoy similar (if not more)
rights compared with today.
other casahistoria core sites on argentine history:
Immigration into Argentina
The Military and aftermath