argentina: links to the 1982 malvinas/falklands conflict   

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Thirty Years on: Special section of links added at the foot of the page to articles of value as of May 2012 


   
   
   
Falklands/Malvinas - part one: Background Go here for links to context, background &  origins of the conflict.
 
 1. General Accounts of the War 
General histories | Chronologies
 2. Biographies
 3. The Military Actions
Naval Conflict | Air War | ...and on the islands
 4. International Situation
Diplomacy of the war | Allies & Enemies
 5. Witness accounts
 6. Documents
 7. Audio Visual Materials
 8. Analysis
Causes | Why Britain won | Lessons of the war
 9. Aftermath
 
 
The editor visited the islands in summer 2008-9. His observations on the islands then and travel hints for future visitors can be read here.
 
Other core casahistoria Argentina pages:
 
   Independence & Confederation
  The Republic before Perón
   Immigration into Argentina
   Perόn's Argentina
  The Military and aftermath
 
 
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1. General accounts of the war
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Origins of the Conflict. Go to this casahistoria site:
 
Falklands/Malvinas - part one: background Sections on:

 

Maps
  • Malvinas Islas Malvinas. The names in Spanish
  • Map on the Official Falklands Website A useful map for the English names on the islands
  • Falklands/Malvinas from the CIA World Handbook

General accounts 

  • Falklands War Also see the Spanish (more limited) version:
  •  Guerra de las Malvinas from Wikipedia. Two excellent, detailed and well cross-referenced articles. Very thorough
  • Islas Malvinas. Site of the Argentine infantry (infanteria ejercito). Useful site from the official web of the argentine army. Sections on regiments involved, weapons, campaigns and awards. Unfortunately this is no longer available anywhere on the military site. This is the archived Wayback copy. §
  • Guerra de Malvinas A very full narrative by Marcial Sorazabal (93 pages) covering events of the war, causes and conclusions.  Pictures and diagrams. Intriguing final sections on the reaction to war. The bibliography used is interesting. By the same author, (but not a pdf) see Guerra de Malvinas issued by Monografias.com  a web site hosting (mainly student) essays
  • BBC: despite the similarity of the first two titles, each has different articles. both are worth looking at for background, interviews and analysis.
  • Chronology produced in 1998 when Menem visited the UK. Contains timeline and links to audio & video reports.
  • On This Day: 1982: Argentina invades Falklands BBC site to the day of the invasion. AV reports from BBC TV.
  • The Battle of the Falkland's War. Very Good. Placed on the web, this version of the book is full & well detailed (maps, photos and details are very thorough and clearly set out). British published but it heads the list of recommended British-published books, described as "a very useful and detailed guide to the day-by-day development of the war" in the Argentine Army journal "Soldados", April 2000 edition.
  • Falklands Conflict Produced by Navy News, newspaper of the Royal navy. Comprehensive, well produced
  • Falklands (Islas Malvinas) War 1982 - A site with very British views, focused from the British soldiers point of view. This is part of a site looking at all Britain´s military and imperial conflicts up to the present time.  Includes a message board for veterans.
  • Psyop Of The Falkland Islands War Interesting site looks at the propaganda and psychological war fought by both sides. Good images of materials used on both sides.
Chronologies

 

 


 

  

 

 




2. Biographies
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  • People photographs of key participants in the conflict. Comprehensive. From Falklands Conflict site
Galtieri
  • A Day in the Life of Galtieri by Uki Goñi - 1996 article Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires is  home to soccer ace Diego Maradona, but just a few streets away, scarcely a head turned when a dictator once cheered by millions went out to do his shopping. Few generals managed to fade away as quietly as Leopoldo Galtieri.  §
  • Galtieri  obituary article from the UK Guardian upon his death by Alex Bellos, South America correspondent, January 13, 2003
  • Obituary of a criminal from Russia' Pravda... another angle....
  • Mensaje del Presidente Galtieri Galtieri anuncia la recuperación de las Islas Malvinas : listen to the speech -the third on the page. (Sometimes however it can be offline - exceeds its visitor limits?)
  • Galtieri brief video from the balcony of the Casa Rosada
Thatcher
  • Patriotism has Worked its Old Magic Guardian Unlimited special report on the Thatcher era, written in November 2000, 10 years after her resignation. This article takes a damning look at her role in the Falklands War.
  • Margaret Thatcher Biography Concise but useful, with an (surprising?) attempt at balance from the The Margaret Thatcher Site. §
  • "Rejoice" Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Defence Secretary John Nott deliver statement describing successful landing of British troops on South Georgia during Falklands conflict, Thatcher refuses to answer questions from press, telling them to "rejoice", Downing Street; 25 Apr 82







  







3. The military actions


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Naval conflict
  • Clausewitz and Seapower: Lessons of the Falkland Islands War  Edward B. Zellem; Albert L. St Clair (Faculty Advisor) Air Command and Staff College 1999. Motives, key assumptions, military strategy, and tactics of Great Britain and Argentina discussed within the context of the Clausewitzian dictum that "war is the continuation of politics by other means."
       The Warships         The role of submarine warfare
  • Given little emphasis at the time or since, the role & involvement of the Royal Navy (nuclear) submarine fleet was perhaps the most crucial element in ensuring eventual UK success. These links give some indication of this:
    • Beyond the General Belgrano and Sheffield: Lessons in Undersea and Surface Warfare from the Falkland Islands Conflict Very useful (and easy to read) paper argues that  the nuclear submarine was the vital weapon. The Belgrano sinking & the now apparent UK underwater naval blockade kept the Argentine Navy in port and ensured air attacks would be at extreme range. Also argues that the Argentines essentially made the same mistake that the Japanese had in World War II: by attacking military vessels rather than the slower-moving, more poorly-defended logistics ships that supplied them, they failed to halt the British fleet. Stanford Univ research paper
       Belgrano         Attacks on the Royal Navy  Air war         The aircraft 
  • Aircraft of both sides. Detailed listings
  • Argentina Naval Aviation Excellent listing with images and details from Malvinas Online
  • Falklands War Air Forces from Wikipedia. Excellent detail and cross referencing
  • La Fuerza Aérea Argentina en Malvinas Very detailed, and well presented site produced by la Fuerza Aérea Argentina. Excellent links to comparative UK/Argentine sources give this considerable balance as a resource
  • The New Hawks of the Argentine Air Force Article By Cees-Jan van der Ende, Juan Carlos Cicalesi and Santiago Rivason on the Skyhawks used by the Argentina airforce. (Unfortunately the entire Latin American Aviation Historical Society site is currently unavailable. This is the Wayback archive version). §
  • The Torpedo Armed Pucar By Atilio Marino, Javier Mosquera & Vladimiro Cettolo. The South Atlantic conflict caused the Argentinean Armed Forces to face their own internal limitations and failures in warfare. This tells how the Pucaro became a torpedo bomber... §
  • Video library from Falklands Conflict Site (includes film of Pucara close support attack aircraft;  Sea Harriers landing on HMS Invincible; Two Mirage take off from an Argentine airbase)
         RAF bombing of the islands 
  • Operation Black Buck detailed & illustrated account of V Bomber planning and the airfield raids from RAF
  • V Bombers RAF teaching sequence of the Black Buck V bomber raids on Stanley. Good map visuals
  • The tin triangle strikes again Review of an account of the mission to destroy the Argentine-held airstrip at Stanley. It was, and remains, the longest range air attack in history. The task was simple. The means by which it was achieved, was mind-bogglingly complex, sometimes chaotic, occasionally farcical.
       Bomb Alley: San Carlos Bay 
  • In the Homeland Day By Diego Zampini Argentine account of events on May 25th
  • "Allee der Bomben" Austrian site, in German, very well set out on the events of the San Carlos landings
  • Argentine Jet Fighter Pilot Pablo Carballo War exploits Comodoro Pablo Marcos Rafael Carballo, who in '82 was commanding officer of Argentinean Grupo 5 de Caza, responsible for attacks inflicted in the Task Force, such as HMS Coventry and the Fitzroy attack. Useful but not too clearly set out..
  • The Birth of Bomb Alley By Juan Carlos Cicalesi & Santiago Rivas. Recounts the bombing of the San Carlos landing forces.  § 
And on the islands

 






  







4. The International Situation
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Diplomacy of the war Allies and enemies

 

 





  



   

5. Witness accounts  

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Sir John Nott UK Defence Secretary Carlos Escude Argentinian historian
  Mark Shurben-Browne 2 Para veteran   General Menendez Argentinian military chief
Bob Mullen Sailor, HMS Sheffield Ruben Rada Argentinian conscript
  Sir Rex Hunt UK governor of Falklands   Jose Luis Ferreira Argentinian sailor
        Augusto Bedacarratz Argentinian pilot

  

Argentine
  • El apostadero Naval Malvinas en Internet Página desarrollada por un veterano de la guerra, donde se brinda información sobre el Apostadero Naval Malvinas. Cuenta con listados de veteranos de la Armada Argentina y de beneficios sociales diversos para los mismos. Posee una sección de documentos, así como un apartado histórico, aún en construcción. Site designed by Argentine naval veterans posted to the islands during the conflict.
  • The Birth of Bomb Alley  By Juan Carlos Cicalesi & Santiago Rivas. On the 21st of May of 1982 the British forces began to disembark on San Carlos bay, beginning the ground operations of the Malvinas/ Falklands war. On that day, the legend of the Bomb Alley began. This is the Argentine point of view of what happened on that day.   §
  • La Fuerza Aérea Argentina en Malvinas  Argentine Air Force: Extracts of descriptions of involvement in the war, from sources world wide
  • Malvinas Air Combat Veteran Photo album, Personal photos of R.Brown, Brigadier (RE) - retired- Argentine Air Force. Worthwhile.
  • Cruces (Crossings: return & departure from the Falklands) by Lorenz and Guembe Pagina/12 book review. The authors collected unpublished photos of the war, several are in the article. These are not battle images (although there are many previously suppressed images of the dead) but are of the war's overall impact on the soldiers.
  • Salir de los silencios (Click to read  "Leaving the Silence" in Google English) Article by Edgardo Esteban ex Argentine soldier on the islands (Scriptwriter of the recent Goya award winning film Iluminados por el fuego). Most interestingly, he describes the process  of "demalvinización" following the Argentine defeat, in which the war was to be "officially" forgotten.  
  • La vida después de la muerte ("life after the death") Multimedia Flash site from Clarin, Buenos Aires daily. Focusing on the impact the war had on five relatives of troops killed in the conflict. Best seen using broadband, it presents the five personal stories against a background of images and sounds from the period and includes "extras" such as images, chronologies, key facts. Unfortunately it is only in Spanish and as it is a Flash site, cannot be googled. There is an option to have subtitles to each story which may help if you have a little Spanish.
British Islanders

 




  






6. Documents

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Argentine documents:
  • Documents relevant to the Sovereignity of the Malvinas Argentine Interior Ministry (From 18th century to the present).
  • Unfortunately the Argentine Interior Ministry has seen fit to remove all access to these documents from their education site!! This link is to the Wayback machine archive where all resources are still available. §
  • Documents (Documentos gráficos relacionados con la Guerra de las Malvinas) from El apostadero Naval Malvinas en Internet site. These are images of the actual documents
  • Argentine Surrender, 14 June 1982
  • Articles from the Argentine & international press during the war From Islas Malvinas Online. Good, full listing.
  • Newspaper front pages A selection of Argentine newspaper front pages from key periods of the war. Interesting comparisons can then be made with "Gotcha" type headlines of the UK Sun! (see also below in British documents). From the Biblioteca Nacional of Argentina §
  • GreenePeace An article from Página 12 (left of centre newspaper published in Buenos Aires) which comments on a sympathetic letter sent by Graham Greene, (author of the Honorary Consul and Travels with my Aunt, both of which were set in Argentina/Paraguay and based on his time in 1960's Argentina) as a reply to an Argentine journalist during the war and published at the time by Diario Clarín. Interesting, as it shows how interpretations of comments can be given a different, and exaggerated spin to further propaganda.
British documents: Island documents:




  



   

7. Audio Visual Materials

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YouTube has made video resources easily accessible. However, this is proving a mixed blessing as YouTube is littered with reconstructed/game based videos of the conflict, many of which are in fact counterfactual history or rampantly jingoistic. Use the YouTube search engine with care!!

  •  Sección fotográfica Lavishly produced from Islas Malvinas Online
  • The conflict in pictures Photo gallery from The Guardian
  • 74 dias en 10 imagenes  BBC
  • Useful audio visual extracts can be found on the BBC Guide to the Conflict site
  • CNN Interactive Video Almanac - 1982 - Falklands war heats up - May 1982 A series of videos to view from the CNN reports of the time. Serie de cinco archivos de video en formato QuickTime (How it started, Argentine troops on the move, Jets bomb Argentine positions)
  • John Nott announces British liberation of South Georgia Nott, Thatcher and the call to "Rejoice".
  • Argentina broadcasts demoralizing propaganda As Britain's warships steamed to the South Atlantic to recapture the Falkland Islands, this was broadcast to the approaching British sailors and troops. Listen to the actual broadcast.
  • Marcha de las Malvinas Argentine Malvinas March. Go here for more Malvinas songs & poems from the Argentine Education Ministry
  • Islas Malvinas Online Page of very comprehensive set of audio extracts including:
    • 01/04/1982: Message of Rex Hunt announcing the Argentine landing. 
    • 02/04/1982: Presidente Galtieri announces the  occupation of the islands.
    • 02/04/1982: Last transmission by the Falkland Islands Broadcasting Station (FIBS), whilst being occupied by Argentine troops. Includes a message from the British governor, Rex Hunt, the Islanders.
    • 02/04/1982: Nicanor Costa Méndez on the negotiations concerning the future of the islands.
    • 03/04/1982: Margaret Thatcher in the Parliamentary debate on the Islands.
    • 10/04/1982: Presidente Galtieri  in the Plaza de Mayo in front of 150.000 to impress US secretary of state, Haig.
    • 28/04/1982: Brigade General Benjamín Menéndez assumes control of the islands.
    • 01/06/1982 : Radio broadcast of the South Atlantic, British propaganda radio transmitting via Ascension to the Argentine troops.
    • 14/06/1982: Comandante of la Fuerza Aérea Argentina Basilio Lami Dozo.
    • 15/06/1982: Formal announcement of surrender to the Argentine troops.






  



   

8. Analysis

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Causes
  • Emotional actor: Foreign Policy Decision Making An essay on the cause of the war from a political science point of view. Difficult, but looks at motivation in a more abstract way than usual. By Coy, Patrick G. and Woehrle, Lynne
  • Brinkmanship decisions and hidden grief Nora Femenia,(1992) Peace Fellow in a paper prepared under United States Institute of Peace sponsorship looks at possible psychological motivations for the  actions of 1982.
  • The Rights and Wrongs of the Historic Claims to the Falkland Islands From 'Tempest in a Teapot' by Reginald & Elliot, 1983 They pose the question 'Who really owns or should own the Falklands?' and review the claims put forward by each side.
  • Political Blunders behind the Falklands War Another extract from 'Tempest in a Teapot' by Reginald & Elliot, 1983 They suggest, "The answers why war broke out lie in the shortsightedness of the governments involved", the real causes of the war being more to do with "governmental blunders" than with historic claims
Why Britain Won
  • Why Britain Won the Falklands War From 'Tempest in a Teapot' by Reginald & Elliot, 1983 On paper, Argentina appeared to have a decided edge, in men, materiel, planes, position, and supply lines. The Argentine advantage, however, was eroded away by the British forces as the war developed, the experience of the British military being a decisive factor
  • Falklands victory 'a close run thing' As both sides mark 20th anniversary, British commander talks of degree of luck By Jeevan Vasagar and Alex Bellos, 2002. Guardian newspaper.
  • Falklands war: Thatcher won, but has Galtieri had the last laugh? Guardian 2012 blog item By Michael White that shows although commentators have been quick to point out how lucky Margaret Thatcher was 30 years ago, she was also strong
Lessons





  



   

9. Aftermath
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The Fall of the Military Junta Go to this casahistoria site for extensive links to the background, role & collapse of the military regime in Argentina

  • Mark Griffin's Falkland Island's Photographs taken with a small 110 camera, and accompanied by a written commentary, these show the islands just after the conflict.
  • Conscripts Return For 'Closure', 2004 Sympathetic article from Penguin News about two proud Argentine conscripts who return to the islands.
  • Return to the past An Argentine veteran returns to the islands and describes the visit, 18 years after the war. In English and in Spanish as Viaje al pasado  Un ex combatiente argentino, Miguel Savage, relata su reencuentro con las islas, 18 años después de la guerra.
  • Recordando (Remembering) (Click here to read the article in google English) A contemplative, but ultimately depressing article, critical of Argentine society in its its reaction to the war written by León Rozitchner, Prof at Univ of Buenos Aires
  • The Falklands test February 25 2002: What do those born in 1982 know about the conflict? Did it affect their lives? Natalie Alcoba Guardian reporter asks five Britons, an islander and an Argentinian.
  • Our own Vietnam Guardian, February 25 2002: The US looked to the conflict in south east Asia for its battle stories. Britain had to go back to the two world wars. Then, in 1982, that all changed. Mark Lawson on how writers and directors responded.
  • The conflict lives on Guardian 2002: How the battles moved away from the islands and on to the pitch. By Simon Kuper
  • Profile: Ossie Ardiles (On April 3 1982, the day after the invasion of the Falklands, Ossie Ardiles helped his team, Tottenham Hotspur, beat Leicester City 2-0 in the FA Cup semi-final at Villa Park. Two days later he left for Argentina. ...)
  • The prospering Falklands Twenty years after Britain and Argentina went to war over them, the Falklands are a breezy, squid-rich paradise. The Economist Mar 28th 2002
  • Landmines in the Sand: The Falkland Islands The Falkland Islands contain approximately 117 mine fields. Many of the mines were remotely delivered. About 80 percent of these landmines are hidden beneath sandy beaches and peat, which can shift a mine’s position and make detection and removal very difficult.

 


A guide to the islands The editor visited the islands in summer 2008-9. His observations on the islands then and travel hints for future visitors can be read here.


And Thirty Years later....

Unfortunately the 30th anniversary has been removed from the veterans and siezed by special interest groups on both sides to repeat past arguments, and sadly produce much bile and a retreat to nationalism/populism, but no settlement - as one day there will need to be. Below are a selection of items that may add to the study/understanding of the initial conflict:
  • Malvinas - 30 Years The anniversary site from Argentina's Clarin newspaper. Has documentary items and also links to emerging news stories. Most valuable of all is:
    • Cementerio De Darwin: Los Custodios De Malvinas (The untold stories of the fallen). This interactive image of the Argentine cemetery on the islands allows you to select a fallen soldier and read their story. However click on the Soldado desconocido tab to see the greatest impact of this page - the way it shows the vast numbers of still unknown soldiers.....
  • Falkland Islands Set of items and links to both the original 1982 archive and 2012 emerging news stories. Especially useful is:
  • Thirty years on, the British still can't admit the truth about the Falklands Felipe Fernandez-Armesto argues that  an opportunity for Britain to offload a valueless colony turned into an obligation to hold on to it at any price as a consequence of Argentine actions in the past and present.
  • Banderas para todos: Malvinas y nosotros/A Flag for the Falklands and us (look at the second piece - it will google translate) January 2012 item (ie before tension escalated) from Argentina's Pagina 12 by Gustavo Arballo, Professor of Public Law, National University of La Pampa, outlines how the islands could, he argues, sympathetically become part of Federal Argentina and enjoy similar (if not more) rights compared with today.

 

 

 

  






other casahistoria core sites on argentine history:


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   Independence & Confederation
  The Republic before Perón
  Immigration into Argentina
  Perόn's Argentina
  The Military and aftermath
  Malvinas/Falklands  
 
 






  



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