The position today:
Colonial Brazil I
Colonial Brazil II
The Portuguese Colony
Brazil Country Study: Introductory series of
concise articles, from US Library of Congress. Good place to
start for an overview in English. Links to key sections:
Brazil Travel. Despite its name, this site provides a
thorough history chronology & outline in detail complete with
useful cross links to other sites.
A Country Is Born Brazil 1500-1750 Detailed account
from the first chapter of Brazil: Five Centuries of Change by
Thomas E. Skidmore, Oxford University Press, 1999. Focus is on
the link between the crown and overseas exploration.
Portugal in America Brief outline of the Portuguese
colonisation from fsmith.com
Early History (Source Brazilian Embassy,
Pedro Alvares Cabral Brief bio of Brazils
The Letter of Caminha Dedicated to Pero Vaz de
Caminha, believed to have lived between 1450 and 1500 was the
scribe of the fleet of Pedro Alvares Cabral and author of what
is called the "birth certificate" of Brazil. This is
a brief study of Caminha's Letter to the King of Portugal and it
is basically a description of the encounter between the
conquerors and the native peoples, and their reactions. Includes
an analysis of the letter, & letter itself in Portuguese and
Navigation and Discovery Clear
essays from the (bilingual) The United States and Brazil:
Expanding Frontiers, Comparing Cultures site of the US Library
of Congress. Well presented with links to themes and documents.
Includes sections on:
The Portuguese Cartographic School &
The Mapping of Brazil
Portugal in America, to 1600 Looks at Portuguese expansion
and the African connection. Straightforward account from
the Frank E.
Smitha history sites.
Hereditary Capitanies describes the system adopted in
1534, when Portugal divided Brazil in Hereditary Capitanies,
adopting a system they had already used when colonizing the
Bandeirantes Item from Travel Brazil about the
Bandeirantes (bandeira is the Portuguese for "flag"; the
bandeiras used to carry a flag to identify them), who led
private expeditions which explored the interior lands of Brazil
during the 17th & 18th centuries
Colonial World Visual introduction to the Portuguese Empire,
placing its South American expansion in a global context.
The Portuguese Colonial World a smaller version. By R H
Jackson. Powerpoint pdf file, requiring Adobe Reader.
- Portuguese settlements: Useful, illustrated, pages from Marco Ramerini's Dutch & Portuguese Colonialism
Tiradentes bio of the independence leader
The Colonial Period Clear essays from the
(bilingual) The United States and Brazil: Expanding
Frontiers, Comparing Cultures site of the US Library of
Congress. Well presented with links to themes and documents.
Includes sections on:
Brazil since 1821
Jesuit Missions to the Brazilian Indians
Detailed account of the initial Jesuit expeditions to Brazil.
Based on "Arrival of the Jesuits," in John Hemming, Red Gold:
Conquest of the Brazilian Indians, 1978. Brigham Young Univ. §
Missions on the Fringes of Spanish America: A Comparison
This is a compendium of the materials from most of R H Jacksons
presentations on the Spanish, Portuguese and Jesuits. A large
download, but a mass of visual evidence. Brief textual
introductions place the developments in a context, then they are
presented by geographical area. North America first, then South
America (page 76) By R H Jackson. Powerpoint pdf file.
Spanish Missions in the Lowlands Regions of South America
Thorough visual and graphical presentation of the Jesuit
missions of the Uruguay/ Brazil/ Argentina/ Paraguay region.
Very clear. By R H Jackson. Powerpoint pdf file.
The Jesuits Missions (Reducciones) in Paraguay, Bolivia,
Argentina, Brazil Mainly outline but give an
overview. See also From Marco Ramerini's Dutch &
Portuguese Colonialism site
Photos and history of San Ignacio Mini reducción jesuítica
(Jesuitic reduction), Misiones, Argentina Mainly
outline but give an overview. From Marco Ramerini's Dutch
& Portuguese Colonialism site.
The Jesuit Missions of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil
Plans, pictures, population data, brief textual outlines. Very
thorough, set out by modern country. By R H Jackson.
Powerpoint pdf file.
- San Lorenzo Martir: A Jesuit
Mission in the Service of Spanish Policy This essay examines
the development of a Jesuit mission established in the western
part of the modern Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul in 1690
as set against the backdrop of Spanish geopolitical concerns in
the larger region. Essay by RH Jackson.
Economic Growth & Slavery
A Commonwealth within itself - the Early Brazilian Sugar
Industry 1550-1650. Detailed and lengthy Stuart B Schwartz
article (Yale, 2005) traces the growth & significance to
Portuguese settlement of the sugar industry of the north east.
Good use of data/diagrams to show production & land tenure.
Merchant groups in the 17th-century Brazilian sugar trade:
Reappraising old topics with new research insights By Leonor
Freire Costa (2004 Technical University of Lisbon) Very detailed
look at emergence of General brazil company & examines the role
of the New Christians within Portuguese mercantile organizations
during the early modern period. Sections on trade with non
The Portuguese in Brazil Useful introductory overview of the
Portuguese role in the economy of Brazil from the OECD
All about Sugar Straightforward and useful account of the
growth (& use at the time) of sugar from a Brazilian sugar
The Origin of Brazil’s Textile Industry: An Overview
Research essay (opens as a word doc) by Roberta Marx Delson (Ass
Prof, Drew University) looks at the emergence of a textile
industry in 18th century Brazil
Demographic change in a post-export boom society: the population
of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1776-1821 (Journal of Social
History, 1996) by Laird W. Bergad. Lengthy academic
research essay which shows how the large-scale slave system
successfully made the transition from a slave-based export
economy dependent on foreign markets, to a more diversified
agricultural and cattle economy oriented almost exclusively to
local or regional markets within Brazil.
Slavery in Brazil: The World of the Sugar plantation The
Jesuit priest Joao Antonio Andreoni (1650-1715), who came to
Brazil in 1667 and spent the rest of his life there, wrote a
valuable account of the agricultural and mineral resources of
the colony. His book, published in Lisbon in 1711, was promptly
suppressed by the Portuguese government on the ground that the
information it contained might prove helpful to Portugal's
European rivals. §
Slave Trade to Rio de Janeiro, 1795-1811 Provides
access to the raw data and documentation which contains
information on: records of slave ship movement to Rio de Janeiro.
(Slow to load)
A Third World in the New: African Slaves in Portuguese America
by Richard Graham, University of Texas at Austin
Immigration & Abolition: The Transition from Slave to Free Labor
in the São Paulo Coffee Zone by Tom Holloway. Published in
Essays Concerning the Socio-Economic History of Brazil and
Portuguese India, 1977
Brazilian Slavery and Emancipation Straightforward account
from Historical Text Archive
Slavery Visit this
for further links
Dutch & French
Portugal & Brazil, 1815-21
Patrick Wilcken: Empire Adrift,
Court in Rio de Janeiro, 1808-1821
Did you know the Portuguese Royal Court all up-sticked and headed for Rio during
the Napoleonic Wars? This explains the why's and how's. A good read, describing
the growth of Rio - as well as the duplicitous role of Britain. This may have
been where Britain first began to influence latin American internal politics
through the back door. Jan'06 (***)
since 1821 Click here to go to casahistoria links to
post Independence Brazil (Independence & Empire 1821
-1889; Wars of the Empire; Republic 1889 -1964; Vargas;